WB JEEM Chemistry Syllabus:
Atoms, Molecules and Chemical Arithmetic:
Dalton’s atomic theory; Gay Lussac’s law of gaseous volume; Avogadro’s Hypothesis and its applications.
Atomic Mass; Molecular Mass; Equivalent weight; Valency; Gram atomic weight; Gram molecular weight; Gram equivalent weight and mole concept; Chemical formulae; balanced chemical equations; Calculations (based on mole concept) involving common oxidation – reduction, neutralization and displacement reactions; Concentration in terms of mole fraction, molarity, molality and normality. Percentage composition, empirical formula and molecular formula; Numerical problems
Concept of Nuclear Atom – electron, proton and neutron (charge and mass), atomic number. Rutherford’s model and its limitation; extra nuclear structure; line spectra of hydrogen atom.
Quantization of energy (Planck’s equation E=hv); Bohr’s model of hydrogen and its limitations; Sommerfeld’s modifications (elementary idea); The four quantum numbers, ground state electronic configurations of many electrons atoms and mono – atomic ions, The Aufbau Principle; Pauli’s exclusion principle and Hund’s Rule.
Dual nature of matter and light, de Broglie relationship; Uncertainty principle; the concept of atomic orbitals; shapes of s, p and d orbitals (pictorial approach)
Radioactivity and Nuclear Chemistry:
Radioactivity: Alpha, beta, Gamma rays and their properties; Artificial transmutation; rate of radioactive decay; decay constant; half life average age life period of radio elements; units of radioactivity; numerical problems
Stability of the atomic nucleus – effect of neutron – proton (n/p) ratio on the modes of decay; group displacement law; radioisotopes and their uses (C, P, Co and I as examples) isobars and isotones (definitions and examples) elementary idea of nuclear fission and fusion reactions.
The Periodic Table and Chemical Families:
Modern periodic law (based on atomic number); Modern periodic table based on electronic configurations; group (Gr 1-18) and periods. Types of elements – representative ( s block and p block) transition (d block) elements and inner transition ( f block / lanthanides and actinides) and their general characteristics. Periodic trends in physical and chemical properties – atomic radii, valency, ionization energy, electron affinity; electronegativity, metallic character; acidic and basic characters of oxides and hydrides of the representative elements (up to Z =36). Position of hydrogen and the noble gases in the periodic table; Diagonal relationship
Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure:
Valence electrons; the Octet rule; electrovalent, covalent and coordinate covalent bonds with examples; properties of electrovalent and covalent compounds. Limitations of Octet rule (examples); Fajan’s rule
Directionality of covalent bonds; shapes of poly – atomic molecules (examples); concepts of hybridization of atomic orbit orbitals (qualitative pictorial approach): sp, sp2, sp3 and dsp2
Molecular orbital energy diagrams for homonuclear diatomics species – bond order and magnetic properties
Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) concept (elementary idea) – shapes of molecules. Concept of resonance ( elementary idea) resonance structures (examples). Elementary idea about electronegativity; bond polarity and dipole moment; inter and intra molecular hydrogen bonding and its effects on physical properties (mp, bp and solubility); Hydrogen bridge bonds in diborane.
Introduction, Double salts and complex salts; coordination compounds (examples only); Werner’s theory, coordination numbers (examples of coordination number 4 and 6); colour, magnetic properties and shapes; IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds
Classification of solids based on different binding forces: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids; amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea). Unit cell in two dimension and three dimensional lattices; calculation of density of unit cell; packing in solids; packing efficiency; voids; number of atoms per unit cell in cubic unit cell; point defects; electrical and magnetic properties; Brand theory of metals; conductors; semi conductors and insulators and n & p type semiconductors.
Vapour pressure; viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only; no mathematical derivations)
Measurable properties of gases. Boyle’s law and Charles law; absolute scale of temperature; kinetic theory of gases; ideal gas equation – average, root mean square and most probable velocities and their relationship with temperature. Dalton’s law of partial pressure; Grahams law of gaseous diffusion. Deviations from ideal behavior. Liquefaction of gases; real gases; van der Waals equation; Numerical problems.
Chemical Energetics and Chemical Dynamics:
Chemical Energetics – Conservation of energy principle; energy changes in physical and chemical transformations. First law of thermodynamics; Internal energy; work and heat pressure – volume work; Enthalpy. Internal energy change and Enthalpy change in a chemical reaction. Hess’s law and its applications (Numerical problems). Heat of reaction; fusion and apourization; Second law of thermodynamics; Entropy; Free energy; criterion of spontaneity. Third law of thermodynamics (brief introduction)
Chemical Equilibria – the law of mass action; dynamic nature of chemical equilibria. Equilibrium constants; Le Chatelier Principle. Equilibrium constants of gaseous reactions (concentration, pressure, temperature, catalyst), Concept of collision theory. Arrhenius equation and concept of activation energy.
Physical Chemistry of Solutions:
Colloidal Solutions: Differences from true solutions; Hydrophobic and hydrophilic colloids (examples and uses); Coagulation and peptization of colloids; Dialysis and its applications; Brownian motion; Tyndall effect and its applications; elementary idea of emulsion; surfactant and micelle.
Electrolytic Solutions: Specific conductance; equivalent conductance; ionic conductance; Kohlrausch’s law; Faraday’s laws of electrolysis; applications. Numerical problems
Non electrolytic solutions: types of solutions; vapour pressure of solutions. Raoult’s law; Colligative properties; lowering of vapour pressure; elevation of boiling point; depression of freezing point; osmotic pressure and their relationships with molecular mass (without derivations); Numerical problems
Ionic and Redox Equilibria:
Ionic equilibria; ionization of weak electrolytes; Ostwald’s dilution law. Ionization constants of weak acids and bases; ionic product of water; the pH scale; pH of aqueous solutions of acids and bases; Buffer solutions; buffer action and Henderson equations
Acid base titrations; acid base indicators (structures not required). Hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea); solubility products; common ion effect (no numerical problems)
Redox Equilibria: Oxidation; Reduction reactions as electron transfer processes; oxidation numbers; balancing of redox reactions by oxidation numbers and ion electron methods. Standard electrode potentials; electrochemical series; feasibility of a redox reaction. Significance of Gibbs equation (without derivation) no numerical problems. Redox titrations with (examples); Nernst equations (numerical problems)
Position of hydrogen in periodic table; occurrence; isotopes; preparation; properties and uses of hydrogen; hydrides – ionic covalent and interstitial; physical and chemical properties of water; heavy water; hydrogen peroxide: preparation, reactions and structure and use; hydrogen as a fuel
Chemistry of Non Metallic Elements and their Compounds:
Carbon: occurrence; isotopes; allotropes (graphite, diamond, fullerene); CO and CO2 production; properties and uses.
Nitrogen and Phosphorus: Occurrence, isotopes, allotropes, isolation from natural sources and purification; reactivity of NH3, PH3, NO2, HNO2, P4O10, H3PO3 and H3PO4
Oxygen and Sulphur: Occurrence, isotopes, allotropic forms, isolation from natural sources and purification; properties and reactions of the free elements. Water, unusual properties of water; heavy water (production and uses). Hydrogen peroxide and ozone (production, purification, properties and uses)
Halogens: Comparative Study; occurrence; physical states and chemical reactivities of the free elements; peculiarities of fluorine and iodine; Hydracids of halogens (preparation, properties, reactions and uses); inter halogens compounds (examples); oxyacids of chlorine.
Chemistry of Metals:
General principles of metallurgy; occurrence; concentration of ores; production and purification of metals; mineral wealth of India. Typical metals (Na, Ca, Al, Fe, Cu and Zn); occurrence, extraction, purification (where applicable) properties and reactions with air, water, acids and non metals. Manufacture of steels and alloy steel (Bessemer, Open – Hearth and L.D. process)
Principles of chemistry involved in electroplating; anodizing and galvanizing.
Preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4
Lanthanoids: Electronic configuration; oxidation states; chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences
Actinoids: Electronic configuration; oxidation states and comparison with lanthanoids.
Chemistry in Industry: Large scale production (including physicochemical principles where applicable; omitting technical details) and uses of Sulphuric acid (contact processes); Ammonia (Haber’s process); Nitric acid (Ostwald’s process); sodium bi carbonate and sodium carbonate (Solvey process)
Natural and Synthetic polymers; methods of polymerization (addition and condensation); copolymerization; some important polymers – natural and synthetic like polythene; nylon polyesters; Bakelite; rubber. Biodegradable and non biodegradable polymers.
Adsorption: Physisorption and chemisorptions; factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids; catalysis; homogeneous and heterogeneous activity and selectivity; enzyme catalysis colloidal state; distinction between true solutions; colloids and suspension; lyophilic; lyophobic multimolecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect; Brownian movement; electrophoresis; coagulation, emulsion – types of emulsions.
Common modes of pollution of air, water and soil. Ozone layer; ozone hole – important chemical reactions in the atmosphere; Smog: major atmospheric pollutants; Green House effect; Global warming pollution due to industrial wastes; green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution; strategies for control of environment pollution.
Chemistry of Carbon Compounds:
Hybridization of carbon
Isomerism – constitutional and stereoisomerism; Geometrical and optical isomerism of compounds containing upto two asymmetric carbon atoms. IUPAC nomenclature of simple organic compounds – hydrocarbons, mono and bifunctional molecules only (alicyclic and heterocyclic compounds excludes) Conformations of ethane and n – butane (newman projection only)
Electronic Effects: Inductive, resonance and hyperconjugation. Stability of carbocation, carbanion and free radicals; rearrangement of carbocation; electrophiles and nucleophiles; tautomerism; in dicarbonyl compounds; acidity and basicity of simple organic compounds
Aliphatic Compounds: Alkanes – Preparation from alkyl halides and carboxylic acids; Reactions – halogenations and combustion
Alkenes and Alkynes: Preparation from alcohols; formation of Grignard reagents and their synthetic applications for the preparation of alkanes; alcohols; aldehydes; ketones and acids; SNI and SN2 reactions (prelimnary concept). Markownikoff’s and anti Markownikoff’s additions; Hydroboration; Oxymercuration – demercuration; reduction of alkenes and alkynes (H2 / Lindler catalyst and Na in liquid NH3), metal acetylides.
Haloalkanes and Haloarenes: Haloalkanes – Preparation from alcohols; Nomenclature, nature of C – X bond, physical and chemical properties; mechanical of substitution reactions; optical rotation.
Formation of Grignard reagents and their synthetic applications for the preparation of alkanes; aldehydes; ketones and acids; SN1 and SN2 reactions (preliminary concept)
Uses and environmental effects of dichloromethane; trichloromethane; tetrachloromethane; iodoform; freons; DDT.
Preparation of alcohols from carbonyl compounds and esters. Reaction – dehydration; oxidation; esterfication; reaction with sodium; ZnCl2/HCl; phosphorous halides.
Esters: Preparation by Williamson’s synthesis; Cleavage with HCl and HI
Aldehydes and Ketones: Preparation from esters; acid chlorides; gem – dihalides; Ca – salt of carboxylic acids. Reaction – Nucleophilic addition with HCN; hydrazine; hydroxyl amines; semi carbazides; alcohols; Aldol condensation; Clemmensen and Wolff – Kishner reduction; haloform; Cannizzaro and Wittig reactions.
Carboxylic Acids: Hydrolysis of esters (mechanism excluded) and cyanides; Hunsdicker and HVZ reactions.
Aliphatic Amines: Preparation from nitro; cyano and amido compounds. Distinction of 1,2, and 3 amines (Hinsberg method); Reaction with HNO2; Carbyl amine reaction.
Benzene – Kekule structure; aromaticity and Huckel rule; Electrophilic substitution – halogenation, sulfonation; nitration; Friedel Crafts reaction; ozonolysis. Directive influence of substituent’s in monosubstituted benzenes. Carcinogenicity and toxicity.
Amines: Preparation from reduction of nitro compounds; formation of diazonium salts and their stability; Replacement of diazonium group with H, OH, X (halogen), CN and NO2; diazocoupling and reduction.
Haloarenes: Nature of C – X bond; substitution reactions; Nucleophilic substitution; cine substitution (excluding mechanism; directive influence of halogen in monosubstituted compounds only
Phenols: halogenation; sulfonation; nitration; Reimer – Tiemann and Kolbe reactions.
Aromatic Aldehydes – preparation by Gattermann; Gattermann – Koch; Rosenmund and Stephen’s method. Reaction – Perkin, Benzoin and Cannizzaro
Application Oriented Chemistry:
Main ingredients; their chemical natures (structures excludes) and their side effects; if any; of common antiseptics; antacids; vitamins C
Introduction to Bio Molecules:
Carbohydrates – Pentoses and hexoses. Distinctive chemical reactions of glucose
Aminoacids – glycine, alanine, aspartic acid, cysteine (structures). Zwitterion structures of amino acids; peptide bond.
ADP and ATP – structures and role in bioenergetics; Nucleic acids – DNA and RNA skeleton structures. Names of essential elements in biological system
Principles of Qualitative Analysis:
Detection of water soluble non interfering acid and basic radicals by dry and wet tests from among: acid radicals:
Detection of special elements in organic compounds by chemical tests. Identification of functional groups in phenols; aromatic amines; aldehydes; ketones and carboxylic acids.