WB JEEM Biology Syllabus

Category: Syllabus 34 0

WB JEEM Biology Syllabus:

Science of Life:

Basic unit of life process; cell theory; prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells – structures and differences

Ultra Structure and functional of cellular components:

Cell wall; plasma membrane; plastids; endoplasmic recticulum; Golgi bodies; mitochondria; ribosomes; lysosomes; nucleus; nucleolus; centrosome; microbodies (peroxisomes and glyoxysomes); cytoskeleton; vacuole; centriole; cilia; flagella

Chemical constituents of living cells:

Classification; components and structural properties of carbohydrates; lipids; proteins and nucleic acids; enzymes; enzymatic action (lock and key, allosterism, regulation)

Chromosome:

Morphology of chromosomes; brief idea of polytene chromosomes; brief idea of polytene chromosomes; euchromatin and heterochromatin; nucleic acids; enzymes; enzymatic action (lock and key, allosterism, regulation)

Cell division:

Cell Cycle; mitosis – definition and significance (process not required); meiosis – process; types and significance; difference between mitosis and meiosis

Genesis and Evolution:

Mendelian inheritance (laws only); deviation from Mendelism (i)incomplete dominance; (ii)codominance (iii) multiple alleles and inheritance of blood groups (ABO, Rh); phylogenetic inheritance (elementary); chromosome theory of inheritance; chromosomes and genes; sex determination in humans, birds and money bees; linkage and crossing over; sex linked inheritance – haemophilia, colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans; (i)autosomal (a) Thalassemia (b)Down Syndrome; (ii)Sex linked (a) Turner’s syndrome (b)Klinefelter’s syndrome (cause and symptoms only)

Molecular basis of Inheritance:

DNA as the genetic material (Griffith, Avery – MacLeod – Mc Carty and Hershey – Chase experiments); structure of DNA and RNA; types of RNA – mRNA, rRNA and t – RNA; DNA packaging; central dogma (elementary); DNA replication ; transcription; genetic code; translation; elementary knowledge of regulation of gene expression (lac operon); DNA finger printing (basic idea only)

Evolution:

Origin of life – theories of origin of life; abiogenic origin / chemical origin of life – Oparin – Haldane hypothesis; biological evolution evidences; theories of organic evolution; Darwin’s contribution; synthetic theory; mechanism of evolution – variation and its sources of origin, mutation, recombination; gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy – Weinberg principle; human evolution – an outline

Morphological variations and structural organization:

Plant tissue and tissue system: types, structure and functions; animal tissue – classification, structure and functions in brief

Physiology and Biochemistry:

Plants:

Movements of water; nutrients and gases: absorption of gases; water and nutrients; cell to cell transport; diffusion; active transport; plant – water relation – imbibitions; water potential; osmosis and plasmolysis; long distance transport – apoplastic; symplastic; root pressure; transpirational pull; uptake of minerals; transpiration and gullation; opening and closing of stomata; transport through xylem and phloem

Essential minerals: macro and micro nutrients and their functions; elementary idea of hydroponics; nitrogen metabolism; nitrogen cycle; biological nitrogen fixation

Respiration: cellular respiration – glycolysis; fermentation; TCA cycle and ETS (aerobic) – definition; process and significance; energy relation – number of ATP molecules generated in respiration; amphibolic pathways; respirators quotients of nutrients

Photosynthesis: definition; site of photosynthesis; photosynthetic pigments (structure not required); photochemical and biosynthetic phases; photorespiration; C3 and C4 pathways; factors controlling photosynthesis

Growth and development: idea of growth; differentiation and development; various growth factors (light, temperature, water, nutrients; hormones only) growth rate; growth regulation – auxin; gibberellins; cytokinin; ethylene; ABA; seed germination; seed dormancy; vermilisation; photoperiodism – definition; types of plants on the basis of the length of photoperiod

Reproduction: mode of reproduction – sexual and asexual; asexual reproduction – definition; characteristics; modes (binary fission; sporulation; budding; gemmule formulation, fragmentation, regeneration, vegetative propagation, cutting, grafting, layering and gootee); sexual reproduction – flower structure; pollination (autogamy and geitonogamy); cross pollination (allogamy and xenogamy); agents of pollination – brief description with examples; significance; development of male gametophyte and female gametophyte; out breeding devices; pollen pistil interaction; double fertilization; post fertilization events; development of endosperm and embryo (in brief); formation of fruit and development of seed (elementary); special modes – apomixes; parthenogenesis; parthenocarpy and polyembryony (brief account); significance of fruits and seed formation.

Animals: Human:

Digestion and absorption: Structure of human alimentary canal dental arrangement and digestive glands (in brief); peristalsis; digestion; role of digestive enzymes and the Cr – I hormones in digestion; absorption; assimilation of carbohydrates, protein and fats; egestion; nutritional and digestive disorder – protein – energy malnutrition (PEM); indigestion; constipation; vomiting; jaundice; diarrhea (brief idea)

Breathing and respiration: respiratory organs in animals (in brief); respiratory system in human (outline); mechanism of breathing and its regulation in human body; exchange of gases; transport of gases; regulation of respiration; respiratory volume; disorders related to respiration – asthma, emphysema, occupational respiratory disorders (e.g Silicosis, asbestosis); definition of hypoxia, anoxia, apnoea, dyspnoea

Body fluids and circulation: Composition of blood (in tabular form); blood grouping; coagulation of blood; lymph and its function; outline idea of human circulatory system; structure of human heart and blood vessels; cardiac cycle; cardiac output; stroke volume; minute volume; determination of cardiac output – Fick’s principle; double circulation; regulation of cardiac activity (neutral and hormonal) including factors regulating blood pressure; disorders of circulatory system; hypertension, coronary artery diseases; angina pectoris; heart failure (brief idea only)

Excretory products and their elimination: modes of excretion – ammonotelism; ureotelism; uricotelism (definition and examples); human excretory system – structure and function (histology of nephron); urine formation n  and osmoregulation; regulation of kidney functions; rennin; angiotensin; antidiuretic factor (ADH) and diabetes insipidus; role of other organs in excretion – liver, skin, lung and salivary glands; disorders – uremia, renal failure, renal calculi, nephritis; dialysis and artificial kidney (brief idea only)

Locomotion and movement: types of movement – ciliary, flagellar and muscular; skeletal muscle; contractile proteins and its functions; joints; disorders of muscular and skeletal system – myasthenia gravis; tetany; muscular dystrophy; arthritis; osteoporosis; and gout (brief idea only)

Neutral control and coordination: brief idea of neurons and nerves; neural control and coordination; nervous system of human central, peripheral and visceral; brain and its major parts – cerebral cortex; thalamus; hypothalamus and limbic system; mid brain; pons; medulla; cerebellum and spinal cord (outline idea); distribution and function of peripheral nervous system and autonomic nervous system; generation and conduction of nerve impulse; reflex arc; sense organs; sensory perception; outline structure and function of eye and ear.

Chemical coordination and regulation: endocrine glands and hormones; human endrocrine system – hypothalamus; pituitary; pineal; thyroid; parathyroid; adrenal; pancreas; gonads – location and function only; elementary idea of hormone action; role of hormones as messengers and regulators; hypo and hyperactivity of endocrine glands and related diseases – dwarfism; acromegaly; cretinism; goitre; exophthalmic goitre; diabetes; Addison’s disease (brief idea of cause and symptoms only)

Reproduction: male and female reproductive system (outline idea with diagram); microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; gametogenesis (brief account); menstrual cycle; fertilization and development of embryo up to blastocyst formation; implantation; pregnancy and placenta formation; elementary idea of parturition and lactation

Taxonomy, Systematics & Biodiversity:

Definition; binomial nomenclature; law of priority; need for classification; genetic diversity; species diversity; ecosystem diversity; biodiversity; five kingdom classification; salient features and classification of plants and animals

Ecology and Environment:

Concept of ecology; ecosystem; environment; habitat and niche; biome concept and distribution; major abiotic factors; response to abiotic factors and adaptation; population interaction – mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; popular attributes – growth; birth rate and death rate; tropic relationship; pyramids of numbers; biomass and energy; ecological succession

Biodiversity and Conservation:

Pattern of diversity; importance and loss of biodiversity; need of biodiversity conservation; hotspot; endangered species; extinction; Red Data Book and Green Data Book; biodiversity conservation – biosphere reserve; national parks and sanctuaries (general idea)

Environmental Issues:

Sound, air, water pollution and their control; agrochemical and their effects; green house effect and global warming; ozone depletion; deforestation; idea of successes stories; addressing environmental issues; (i)Chipko movement; (ii)Dasholi Gram Swarajya Mandal Movement (DSGM); Silent Valley or Amrita Devi Bishnoi Movement (Jaipur); concept and biomagnifications and bioaccumulations; causes of dyslexia; Minamata and itai – itai diseases; idea of BOD, COD, acid rain, ozone hole

Microbes and human Welfare:

Morphological characteristics of bacteriophage (T2); plant virus (TMV); animal virus (influenza) and bacteria (E.Coli); gram negative and gram positive bacteria (characteristics and examples)

Health and Diseases:

Concept of immune systems; antibody; antigen and its reactions; types of immunity; vaccine and vaccination (brief idea); pathogens and parasites causing human diseases (only causative agents, symptoms of diseases, modes of transmission and preventive measures) – malaria, kala azar, amoebiasis; filariasis; ascariasis; typhoid; pneumonia; common cold, ring worm; HIV, AIDS, Cancer

Biotechnology and its Applications:

Principle and process of genetic engineering (recombinant DNA technology); cloning of microbial genes (brief idea) application of biotechnology in health and agriculture – in household food processing; industrial production; energy generation; sewage treatment; Rhizobium and other nitrogen fixing bacteria; biofertilizers and biopesticides; industrial production of curd; tanning and brewery; synthesis of antibiotics; vitamins; human insulin and vaccine production; gene therapy; transgenesis; transgenic animals and plants with examples (including BT cotton)

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