WB JEE 2015 Biological Science Syllabus:
Movement of water, nutrients and gases: Absorption of gases; water and nutrients; cell to cell transport, diffusion, active transport; plant – water relation – imbibitions; water potential; osmosis and plasmolysis; long distance transport – apoplastic; symplastic; root pressure; transpiration pull; uptake of minerals; transpiration and gullation; opening and closing of stomata; transport through xylem and phloem.
Essential minerals: Macro and micro nutrients and their functions; elementary idea of hydroponics; nitrogen metabolism; nitrogen cycle; biological nitrogen fixation
Respiration: Cellular respiration – glycolysis; fermentation; TCA cycle and ETS (aerobic) – definition; processes and significance; energy relation – number of ATP molecules generated in respiration; amphibolic pathways; respiratory quotients of nutrients
Photosynthesis: Definition; site of photosynthesis; photosynthetic pigments (structure not required); photochemical and biosynthetic phases; photorespiration; C3 and C4 pathways; factors controlling photosynthesis
Growth and Development: Idea of growth; differentiation and development; various growth factors (light, temperature, water, nutrients, hormones only); growth rate; growth regulation – auxin, gibberellins, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; seed germination, seed dormancy, vermilisation; photoperiodism – definition; types of plants on the basis of the length of photoperiod
Reproduction: Mode of reproduction – sexual and asexual; asexual reproduction – definition, characteristics, mode (binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule formation, fragmentation, regeneration, vegetative propagation, cutting, grafting, layering and gootee); sexual reproduction – flower structure; pollination (autogamy and geitonogamy); cross pollination (allogamy and xenogamy); agents of pollination – brief description with examples; significance; development of male gametophyte and female gametophyte; out breeding devices; pollen – pistil interaction; double fertilization; post – fertilization events – development of endosperm and embryo (in brief); formation of fruit and development of seed (elementary) special modes – apomixes; parthenogenesis; parthenocarpy and polyembryony (brief account); significance of fruit and seed formation
Digestion and Absorption: Structure of human alimentary canal including dental arrangement and digestive glands (in brief); peristalsis; digestion; role of digestive enzymes and the Cr – I hormones in digestion; absorption; assimilation of carbohydrates; protein and fats; egestion; nutritional and digestive disorder – protein – energy malnutrition (PEM); indigestion; constipation; vomiting; jaundice; diarrhea (brief idea)
Breathing and Respiration: Respiratory organs in animals (in brief) respiratory system in human (outline); mechanism of breathing and its regulation in human body; exchange of gases; transport of gases; regulation of respiration; respiratory volume; disorders related to respiration – asthma, emphysema; occupational respiratory disorders (e.g. Silicosis, asbestosis); definition of hypoxia, anoxia, apnoea, dyspnoea.
Body fluids and Circulation: Composition of blood (in tabular form); blood grouping; coagulation of blood; lymph and its function; outline idea of human circulatory system; structure of human heart and blood vessels; cardiac cycle; cardiac output; stroke volume; minute volume; determination of cardiac output – Fick’s principle; double circulation; regulation of cardiac activity; (neutral and hormonal) including factors regulating blood pressure; disorders of circulatory system – hypertension; coronary artery diseases; angina pectoris; heart failure (brief idea only)
Excretory products and their elimination: Modes of excretion – ammonotelism; ureotelism; uricotelism (definition and examples); human excretory system – structure and function (histology of nephron); urine formation n osmoregulation; regulation of kidney functions; rennin; angiotensin; antidiuretic factor (ADH) and diabetes insipidus; role of other organs in excretion – liver, skin, lung and salivary glands; disorders – uremia, renal failure, renal calculi, nephritis, dialysis and artificial kidney (brief idea only)
Locomotion and Movement: Types of movement; skeletal muscle; contractile proteins and its functions; joints; disorders of muscular and skeletal system – myasthenia gravis; tetany; muscular dystrophy; arthritis; osteoporosis; and gout (brief idea only)
Neural Control and Coordination: Brief idea of neurons and nerves; neural control and coordination; nervous system of human – central, peripheral and visceral; brain and its major parts – cerebral cortex; thalamus; hypothalamus and limbic system; midbrain, pons, medulla, cerebellum and spinal cord (outline idea); distribution and function of peripheral nervous system and autonomic nervous system; generation and conduction of nerve impulse; reflex action and reflex arc; sense organs – sensory perception ; outline structure and function of eye and ear.
Chemical Coordination and Regulation: Endocrine glands and hormones; human endocrine system – hypothalamus, pituitary, pineal, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, gonads – location and function only; elementary idea of hormone action; role of hormones as messengers and regulators; hypo and hyperactivity of endocrine glands and related diseases – dwarfism, acromegaly, cretinism, goitre, exophthalmic goitre, diabetes, Addison’s disease (brief idea of cause and symptoms only)
Reproduction: Male and female reproductive system (outline idea with diagram); microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; gametogenesis (brief account); menstrual cycle; fertilization and development of embryo up to blastocyst formation; implantation; pregnancy and placenta formation; elementary idea of parturition and lactation.
Taxonomy, Systematics and Biodiversity: Definition; binomial nomenclature; law of priority; need for classification; genetic diversity; species diversity; ecosystem diversity; bio diversity; five kingdom classification; salient features and classification of plants and animals.
Ecology and Environment: Concept of ecology; ecosystem; environment; habitat and niche; biome concept and distribution; major abiotic factors; response to abiotic factors and adaptation; population interaction – mutalism; competition; predation; parasitism; population attributes – growth, birth rate and death rate; tropic relationship; pyramids of number; biomass and energy; ecological succession.
Biodiversity and Conservation: Pattern of biodiversity; importance and loss of biodiversity; need of biodiversity conservation; hotspot; endangered species; extinction; Red Data Book and Green Data Book; biodiversity conservation; biosphere reserve; national parks and sanctuaries (general idea)
Environmental Issues: Sound, air, water pollution and their control; agrochemical and their effects; green house effect and global warming; ozone depletion; deforestation; idea of success stories addressing environmental issues – (i)Chipko Movement (ii) Dashroli Gram Swarajya Mandal Movement (DGSM); silent valley or Amrita Devi Bishnoi Movement (Jaipur) concept of biomagnifications and bioaccumulation; causes of dyslexia; Minamata and itai itai diseases; idea of BOD, COD , Acid rain, ozone hole.
Microbes and Human Welfare: Morphological characteristics of bacteriophage; (T2); plant virus (TMV); animal virus (influenza) and bacteria (E.coli); gram negative and gram positive bacteria (characteristics and examples)
Health and Diseases: Concept of immune system; antibody; antigen and its reactions; types of immunity; vaccine and vaccination (brief idea); pathogens and parasites causing human diseases (only causative agents; symptoms of diseases; modes of transmission and preventive measures; malaria, kala, azar, amoebiasis, filariasis; ascariasis; typhoid; pneumonia; common cold; ring worm; HIV, AIDS, cancer.
Biotechnology and its Applications: Principle and process of genetic engineering (recombinant DNA technology); cloning of microbial genes (brief idea only) application of biotechnology in health and agriculture – in household food processing; industrial production; energy generation; sewage treatment; Rhizobium and other nitrogen fixing bacteria; biofertilizers and biopesticides; industrial production of curds; tanning and brewery; synthesis of antibiotics; vitamins; human insulin and vaccine production; gene therapy; transgenesis; transgenic animals and plants with examples (including Bt Cotton)
Science of Life: Basic unit of life processes; Cell Theory; Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells; structures and differences.
Ultra Structure and functions of cellular components: Cell wall, Plasma membrane, Plastid, Endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, Mitochondria, Ribosomes, Lysosomes, Nuclues, Centrosomes, Cilia, Flagella.
Chemical constituents of living cells: Classification, components and structural properties of carbohydrates; lipids, proteins and nucleic acids; enzymes; enzymatic action (lock and key, alloterism, regulation)
Chromosome: Morphology of chromosomes; brief idea of polytene chromosomes; euchromatin and heterochromatin; nucleic acids as genetic material (viral transduction and bacterial transformation)
Cell Division: Cell cycle; mitosis; definition and significance (process not required); meiosis : process, types and significance; difference between mitosis and meiosis.
Genetics and Evolution:
Mendelian inheritance (laws only); deviations from Mendelism: (i)incomplete dominance (ii) codominance (iii) multiple alleles and inheritance of blood groups (ABO, Rh); phylogenetic inheritance (elementary); chromosome theory of inheritance; chromosomes and genes; sex determination in humans, birds and honey bees; linkage and crossing over; sex linked inheritance – haemophilia; colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans: (i)autosomal (a) Thalassemia (b) Down Syndrome (ii) sex linked (a) Turner’s syndrome (b) Klinefelter’s syndrome (cause and symptoms only)
Molecular basis of Inheritance:
DNA as the genetic material (Griffith, Avery; Mac Leod; Mc Carty and Hershey; Chase Experiments) structure of DNA and RNA; types of RNA: mRNA and t-RNA; DNA packaging; central dogma (elementary); DNA replication; replication; transcription; genetic code; translation; elementary knowledge of regulation of gene expression (lac Operon)DNA finger printing (basic idea only)
Origin of life; theories of origin of life; abiogenic origin / chemical of life; Oparin; Haldane hypothesis; biological evolution; evidences; theories of organic evolution; Darwin’s contribution; synthetic theory; mechanism of evolution; variation and its sources of origin; mutation; recombination; gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy – Weinberg principle; human evolution – an outline.
Morphological Variation and Structural Organization: Plant tissue and tissue system; types; structure and functions; animal tissue; classification; structure and functions in brief.