PIMS AICET 2015 Biology Syllabus:
(a)The Living World:
Nature and scope of Biology, methods of Biology. our place in the universe. Laws that govern the universe and life. Level of organization. Cause and effect relationship.
Being alive. What does it mean? Present approach to understand life processes: molecular approach; life as an expression of energy; steady state and homeostasis, self duplication and survival, adaptation; death as a positive part of life. An attempt to define life in these points.
Origins of life and its maintaince. Origin and diversity of life. Physical and chemical principles that maintain life processes, the living crust and interdependence. The positive and negative aspects of progress in biological science. The future of the living world, identification of human responsibility in shaping our future.
Cell as a unit of Life. Small Biomolecules; water, minerals, mono and oligosaccharides, lipids, amino acids, nucleotides and their chemistry, cellular location and function. Macromolecules in cells, their chemistry, cellular location and functional significance, Polysaccharides, proteins and nuclei acids.
Enzymes; chemical nature, classification, mechanism in action-enzyme complex, allosteric modulation (brief), irreversible activation. Biomembranes, fluid mosaic model of membrane in transport recognition of external information (brief). Structural organization of the cell; light and electron microscope views of cell, its organelles and their function, Nucleus mitochondria, chloroplast, endoplasmic reticulum. Golgi complex, Lysosomes, micro tubules, cell wall, cilia and flagella, vacuoles, cell inclusion. A general account of cellular respiration. Fermentation, biological oxidation (a cycle outline), mitochondrial electron transport chain, high bonds and oxidative phosphorylation, cell reproduction; Process of mitosis and meiosis.
(b)Diversity of Life:
Introduction: the enormous variety of living things, the need of classification to cope with this variety; taxonomy and phylogeny; shortcoming of two-kingdom classification as plants and animals, a five kingdom classification. Monera, Protista, Plantae, Fungi and Animalia. The basic features of five kingdom classification; modes of obtaining nutrition-autorophs and heterophs.
Life styles: producers, consumers and decomposers. Unicellularity and multicellularity phylogenetic relationship. Concepts of species, taxon and categories hierarchical level of classification; binomial nomenclature; identification and nature of viruses and bacteriophages and organisms kingdom Moera-archeabacteria life in extreme environments; Bacteria, actinomycetes, Cyanobacteria. Examples of illustrate autotrophic and heterotrophic life styles; minerlizer-nitrogen fixers; Monera in cycling matter, symbiotic forms; diseases producers. Kingdom Prostita-Eucaryotic unicellular organismsm; development of flagella and cilia, beginning of mitosis; syngamy and sex. Various life styles shown in the major phyla.
Evolutionary precursors of complex life forms. Diatoms, dinoflagellates, slime moulds, protozons; symbiotic forms. Plant-kingdoms complex autotrophs, red brown and green algae; conquest of land, bryophytes, ferns, gymnospherms and angiospherms. Vasculruzation; development of flower, fruit and seed, Kingdom fungi-lower fungi (Zygomycetes) higher fungi; (Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes) the importance of fungi, Decomposers; parasitic forms, lichens and mycorrhizae, animal kingdom animal body pattern and symmetry. The development of body cavity in invertebrate vertebrate physia. Salient features with reference to habitat and example of phylumporifera, coelenerata, helminthis, annelids, mollusca, arthropoda, ethindoerms; chordate – (classes-fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammal) highlighting major characters.
(c)Organism and Enviroment:
Species: Origin and concept of species population; interaction between environment and population; community, Biotic community, interaction between different species, biotic stability, changes in the community – succession, Ecosystem, interaction between biotic and abiotic components; major ecosystems, man made ecosystem-Agroecosystem. Biosphere; flow of energy, trapping of solar energy, energy pathway, food chain, food web, biogeochemical cycles, calcium and sulphur, ecological imbalance and its consequences.
Conservation of natural resources, renewable and non-renewable (in brief). Water and land management, wasteland development. Wild life and forest conversation; causes for the extinction of some wild life, steps taken to conserve the remaining species, concept of endangered species- Indian examples, conservation of forests; Indian forests, hazards of deforestation, afforestation. Environmental pollution; air and water pollution, sources, major pollution of big cities of our country, their effects and methods of control, pollution due to nuclear fallout and waste disposal, effect and control, noise pollution; sources and effects.
(d)Multicellularity: Structure and Function of Plant life:
Form and function : tissue system in flowering plants; meristematic and permanent. Minerals nutrition-essentials elements, major functions of different elements, passive and active uptake of minerals. Modes of nutrition, transport of solutes and water in plant, photosynthesis; photochemical and biosynthetic phases, diversity in photosynthetic pathways, photosynthetic electron transport and phtophosphorylation, photorespiration.
Transportation and exchange of gases. Stomal mechanism. Osmoregulation in plants, water relations in plant cells, water potential. Reproduction and development of male and female gametphytes in angiospersms, pollination, fertilization and development of endosperm, embryo seed and fruit. Differentiation and organ formation.
Plant hormones and growth regulation; action of plant hormones in relation to seed dormancy and germination, apical dominance, senescence and abscission. Applications of synthetic growth regulators, brief account of growth and movement in plants. Photomorphogenesis in plants including a brief account of phytochrome.
Structure and Function of Animal life Animal tissues, epithelial, connective, muscular, nerve. Animal nutrition; organs of digestion and digestive process, nutritional requirements for carbohydrates, proteins, fats, minerals and vitamins; nutritional imbalances and deficiency diseases.
Gas exchange and transport Pulmonary gas exchange and organs involved, transport of gases in blood, gas exchange in aqueous media.
Closed and open vascular systems, structure and pumping action of heart, arterial blood pressure, lymph, excretion and osomoregulation. Ammonotelism, Ureotelism, uricotelism, excretion of water and urea with special reference to man. Role of kidney in regulation of plasma, osmolarity on the basis of nephron structure, skin and lung in excretion. Hormonal coordination; hormones of animals, role of hormones as messengers and regulators.
Central autonomic and peripheral nervous systems, receptors, effectors, refle action, basic physiology of special types of skeletal muscles according to types of movement, basic aspects of human skeleton. Reproduction; human reproduction, femal reproductive cycles. Embryonic development in mammals (upto three germs layers), growth, repair and ageing.
(h)Continuity of Life:
(i)Heridity and Variation: Introduction, Mendel’s experiments with peas and idea of factors. Mendel’s law of inheritance. Gases: Packaging of heredity materials in prokaryestes-bacterial chromosomes; plasmid and eukaryote chromosomes, extranuclear genes, viral genes, Linkages (genetic) maps. Sex determination and sex linkage. Genetic material and its replication, gene manipulation. Gene expression; genetic code, transcription, translation, gene regulation. Molecular basis of differention.
(j)Origin and Evolution of Life:
Origin of Life: living and non-living,chemical evolution, organic evolution; Oparin ideas, Miller-Urey experiments. Interrelationship among living organisms and evidences of evolution: fossils records including geological time scale, Morphological evidence homology, vestigial organs, embryological similarities and biogeogrphical evidence
Darwins’s two major contributions: common origin of living organisms and recombination as sources of variability, selection acts upon variation, adaptation (Lederberg’s replica plating experiment for indirect selection of bacterial mutants) reproduction isolation, speciation. Role of selection change and drift in determining composition of population. Selected examples; industrial mealanism; drug resistance, mimicry, malaria in relation to G-6PD deficiency and sickle cell diseases.
Human Evolution: Paleontological evidence, man’s place among mammals. Brief idea of Dryopithecus, Austrapithecus, home erectus, H. neadnderthelenses. Cromagnon man and homo sapiens. Human chromosomes, similarity in different racial groups. Comparison with chromosomes of non-human primates to indicate common origin; Cultural vs biological evolution Mutation their role in speciation . their origin in speciation, their origin in organisms.
(k)Application of Biology:
Introduction, role of Biology in the amelioration of human problems. Domestication of plants-a historical account, improvement of crop plants; principles of plant breeding and plant introduction. Use of fertilizers and economic and ecological aspects
(m)Use of Pesticides:
Advantages and hazards. Biological methods of pest control. Crops today. Current concerns, gene pools and genetic conservation. Underutilized crops with potential uses for oilseeds, medicines,beverages, spices, fodder, New Crops- Leucanena (Subabbul), jojoba, Guayule, winged bean etc. Biofertilizers-green manure, crop residue and nitrogen fixation (symbtiotic, non symbiotic) Applications of tissue culture and genetic engineering in crops. Domestication and introduction of animals. Livestock, poultry, fisheries, (fresh water, marine, aquaculture) improvement of animals; principles of animal breeding. Major animals diseases and their control. Insects and their products (silk, honey, wax and lac) Bioenergy-biomass, wood, (combustion, gastification, ethanol)
Cow dung cakes, gobar gas, plants as sources of hydrocarbons for producing petroleum, ethanol from starch and lignocelluloses. Biotechnology, a brief historical account manufacture of cheese, yogurt alcohol, yeast, vitamins, organic acids, anti bodies, steroids, dextrins. Scaling up laboratory findings to industrial production. Production of insulin, human growth hormones, interferon. Communicable diseases including STD and diseases spread through blood transfusion (hepatitis, AIDS etc) immune response, vaccines and antisera. Allergies and inflammations. Inherited diseases and sex linked diseases, genetic incompatibilities, and genetic counseling, Cancer major types, causes and diagnosis, and treatment. Tissue and organ transplantation.
Community health services and measures. Blood banks. Mental health, smoking, alcoholism and drug addiction-phydiological symptoms and control measures. Industrial wastes, toxicology, pollution-related diseases. Biomedical engineering-spare parts for man, instruments for diagnosis of diseases and care. Human population related diseases. Human population growth problems and control, inequality between sexes-control measures; test tube babies, amniocentesis. Future of biology
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