### Physics Syllabus for AMU EEE 2015 Examinations:

The Aligarh Muslim University conducts the Aligarh Muslim University, Engineering Entrance Examinations every year for the purpose of Admitting all Candidates and Students to its Engineering Courses and Programs in Bachelor of Technology, Bachelor of Engineering and other Several Courses.

**The following is the Physics Syllabus for the AMU EEE 2015 Examinations.**

**Physical World and Measurement:**

Physics- scope and excitement, nature of physical laws, physics, technology, and society. Need for measurement: units of measurement; systems of units, SI units, fundamental and derived units, Length, mass and time measurement; accuracy and precision of measuring instruments, errors in measurement; significant figures.

Dimensions of physical quantities, dimensional analysis and its applications.

**Kinematics:**

Frame of reference, motion in a straight line: position time graph, speed and velocity, uniform and non-uniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocity. Uniformly, accelerated motion, velocity-time, position time graphs, relations for uniformly accelerated motion (graphical Treatment)

Elementary concepts of differentiation and integration for describing motion. Scalar and vector quantities: position and displacement vectors, general vectors and notation, equality of vectors, multiplication of vectors by real number, addition and subtraction of vectors. Relative velocity.

Unit vector; resolution of a vector in a plane-rectangular components. Motion in a plane. Cases of uniform velocity and uniform acceleration-projectile motion. Uniform circular motion.

**Laws of Motion:**

Intuitive concepts of force, newton’s first law of motion, momentum and Newton’s second law of motion, implulse; Newton’s third law of motion. Law of conversation of linear momentum and its applications.

Equilibrim of concurrent forces, static and kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction. Dynamics of uniform circular motion, centripetal force, examples of circular motion (vehicle of level circular road, vehicle on banked road)

**Work, Energy and Power:**

Scalar product of vectors. Work done by a constant force and a variable force, kinetic energy, work energy, theorem, power.

Notion of potential energy, potential energy of a spring, conservative forces, conservation of mechanical energy (kinetic and potential energies) non conservative forces: elastic and inelastic collision in one and two dimesions.

**Motion of system of particles and Rigid Body:**

Centre of mass of a two particle system, momentum conservation and centre of mass motion. Centre of mass of a rigid body, centre of mass of uniform rod. Vector product of vectors, moment of a force, torque, angular momentum, conservation of angular momentum with examples.

Equilibrim of rigid bodies, rigid body rotation and equations of rotational motion. Comparision of linear and rotational motions, moment of inertia, radius of gyration.

Values of moments of inertial for simple geometrical objects (no derivation). Statement of parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications.

**Gravitation:**

Keplar’s laws of planetary motion. The universal law of gravitation. Acceleration dues to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth. Gravitational potential energy, gravitational potential, escape, velocity, orbital velocity of a satellite, geo-stationary satellites.

**Properties of Bulk Matter:**

Elastic behavior, stress-strain relationship. Hooke’s law, young’s modulus, bulk modulus, shear and modulus of rigidity.

Pressure due to a fluid column, Pascal’s law and its applications (hydraulic fit and hydraulic brakes) effect of gravity on fluid pressure.

Viscocity, Stokes’s law, terminal velocity, Reynold’s number, streamline and turbine flow, Bernoulli’s theorem and its applications.

Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact, application of surface tension ideas to drops, bubbles and capillary rise.

Heat, temperature, thermal expansion, specific heat-calorimetry, change of state latent heat. Heat transfer conduction, convection and radiation, thermal conductivity, Newton’s law of cooling.

Second law of thermodynamics: reversible and irreversible processes. Heat engines and refrigerators.

**Behaviour**** of Perfect Gas and Kinetic Theory:**

Equation of state of perfect gas, work done on compression a gas.

Kinetic theory of gases-assumptions, concept of pressure. Kinetic energy and temperature;rms of speed of gas molecules, degrees of freedom, law of equipartition of energy (statement only) and application to specific heats of gases, concept of mean free path, Avogadro’s number.

**Oscillations and Waves:**

Periodic motion-period, frequency, displacement as a function of time. Periodic function. Simple harmonic motion (SHM) and its equation; oscillations of a spring – restoring force and force constant, energy in SHM kinetic and potential energies, simple pendulum- derivation of expression for its time period free, forced and damped oscillations (qualitative ideas only) resonance.

Wave motion, longitudinal and transverse waves, speed of wave motion. Displacement relation for a progressive wave. Principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics, beats, Doppler effect.

**Electrostatics:**

Electric charges, conservation of charge, coulomb’s low-force between two point charges forces between multiple charges, superposition principle and continuous charge distribution.

Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines electric dipole electric field due to a dipole torque on a dipole in uniform electric field.

Electric flux, statement of gauss’s theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire uniformly charges infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged tin spherical shell (field inside and outside)

Electric potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charge, equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and electric dipole in a electrostatic field.

Conductors and insulators free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarization, capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor. Van De Graaff generator.

**Current Electricity:**

Electric current flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor drift velocity, mobility and their relation with electric current, Ohm’s electrical resistance, V-I characteristics (linear and non-linear) electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity. Carbon resistors color code for carbon resistors, series and parallel combinations of resistors, temperature dependence of resistance.

Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell combination of cells in series and in parallel.

Kirchoff’s laws and simple applications. Wheatstone bridge and meter bridge

Potentiometer – principle and its applications to measure potential difference and for comparing emf of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell.

**Magnetic effects of current and Magnetism:**

Concept of magnetic field, Oested’s Experiment

Biot-savart law and its applications to current carrying circular loop

Ampere’s law and its application to infinitely long straight wire, straight and toroidal solenoids.

Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron.

Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field. Force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere. Torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field. Moving coil galvanometer – its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter. Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Magnetic dipole, moment of revolving electron, magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis . torque on magnetic dipole (bar magnetic) in a uniform field, bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid magnetic field line, earths magnetic field and magnetic elements pars-dia-and ferro-magnetic substances with examples, electromagnets and factors of affection their strengths. Permanent magnets.

**Electromagnetic induction and alternating currents:**

Electromagnetic induction, Faraday’s law, induced emf and current, Lenz’s law, Eddy current self and mutual inductance.

Need for displacement current

Alternating current, peak and rms value of alternating current/voltage, reactance and impedance,

LC oscillations, (qualitative treatment) LCR series, circuit, resosance, power in AC circuits wattles current. AC generator and transformer.

**Electromagnetic Waves:**

Displacement current, current Electromagnetic Wave and their characteristics (qualitative ideas only) transverse nature of electromagnetic waves.

Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, micro waves, infrared, visible ultraviolet, x-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.

**Optics:**

Relfection of light spherical mirrors, mirror formula refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications, optical fibres refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses thin lens formuala lens makers formula. Magnification power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in a contact. Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism.

Scattering of light-blue color of the sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset

Optical instruments; human eye, image formation and accommodation, correct of the eye defects (myopia, hypermetropia, presbyogpia and astigmatism) using lenses. Microscopes and astronomical Telescopes (reflection and refraction) and their magnifying powers.

Waves optics: wave front and Huygens principle reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts. Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using the Huygen’s principle interference, Youngs’ double slit experiment and expression for fringe width coherent sources and sustained interference of light. Diffraction due to single slit, width of central maximum. Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes polarization, plane polarized light, Brewster’s law. Use of plane polarized light Polaroid.

**Dual nature of matter and radiation:**

Dual nature of radiation, photoelectric, hertz and lenard’s observation. Einstein’s photoelectric equation particle of light

Master waves, wave nature of particles, de Broglie relation, DA vision general experiment

**Atoms & Nuclei:**

Alpha-particle scattering experiment, Rutherford’s model of atom, Bohr model, energy levels hydrogen spectrum

Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars, isotines. Radioactivity – alpha, beta and gamma particles, rays and their properties, radioactive decay law mass energy relation, mass defect, binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number, nuclear reactor, nuclear fusion

**Electronic Devices:**

Semiconductors, semiconductors diode I-V, characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier, I-V characteristics of LED, photo diode, solar cell and Zener Diode; Zener diode as a voltage regulator. Junction transistor, transistor action characteristics of a transistor, transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration) and oscillator. Logic gages (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR). Transistor as a switch.

**Communication systems:**

Elements of a communication system (block diagram only) bandwidth of signals (speech, TV and digital data) bandwidth of transmission medium. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere, sky and space wave propagation. Need of modulation. Production and detection of an amplitude modulate wave.