### NERIST NEE II Physics Syllabus:

The following given below is the NERIST NEE II Physics Syllabus:

**(a)Physical World and Measurement:
**Physics scope and excitement; physics; technology and society; forces in nature; Conservation laws; Examples of Gravitational; electromagnetic and Nuclear forces from daily- life experiences (qualitative only). Need for measurement; Units of measurement; system of units, SI units; Fundamental and derived units, length; mass and time measurement; Accuracy and precision of measuring instruments. Errors in measurement; significant figures. Dimensions of Physical quantities. Dimensional analysis and application. Elementary concept of differentiation and integration for describing motion.

**(b)Kinematics:
**Uniform motion in a straight line, Position time graph, speed and velocity, Uniform and non uniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocity. Uniformly accelerated motion, velocity time graph, relations for uniformly accelerated motion (graphical method). Scalar and vector quantities, position and displacement vectors, Equality of vectors, multiplications of vectors by real numbers, Addition and subtraction of vector, Unit vector, Resolution of a vector in a plane. Rectangular components, scalar and vector products of two vectors, vectors in 3 dimensions (elementary idea only) motion in a plane, Uniform velocity and uniform acceleration, projectile motion, uniform circular motion.

**(c)Laws of Motion:
**Force and inertia; Newton’s first law of motion; Momentum; Newton second law of motion; Impulse; Newton’s third law of motion; conservation law of linear momentum and its application; Equilibrium of concurrent forces; friction, static and dynamic friction, laws of friction, rolling and sliding friction, lubrication. Dynamics of uniform circular motion, centripetal force, vehicle on a level road, vechicle on a banked road. Inertial and non-inertial frames

**(d)Work, Energy and Power:
**Work done by a constant force and variable force, kinetic force, kinetic energy, Potential energy; work energy theorem; power. Potential energy of a spring, conservative and non-conservative forces, conservation of mechanical energy (kinetic and potential energies) collisions, Elastic and inelastic collision in 1 dimension and 2 dimensions. Different forms of Energies in nature, Mass-Energy equivalence (Qualitative Idea)

**(e)Motion of Systems of particles and Rigid body:
**Centre of Mass of Two particle system, generalization to N-particles, momentum conservation and centre of mass motion; Application to familiar systems, centre of mass of a rigid body.

**(f)Gravitation:
**The universal law of Gravitation, Gravitational constant; Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude, latitude; depth and rotation of earth, Mass of the earth; gravitational potential energy near the surface of earth; gravitational potential, escape velocity. Orbital velocity of a Satellite. Weightlessness, motion of Satellites, geostationary and polar satellites, Kepler’s laws of planetary motion. Proof of second and third law, (for circular orbit) Inertial and gravitational mass. Moment of force, torque, angular momentum, Physical meaning of angular momentum, conservation of angular momentum with some examples (planetary motion). Equilibrium of rigid bodies, rigid body rotation and equation of rotational motion. Moment of Inertia & its physical significance, radius of gyration, parallel and perpendicular axis theorem (statement only) MI of circular ring, disc, cylinder and thin straight road. Rolling of a cylinder without slipping. Examples of binary system in nature (Binary stars, Earth moon system, diatomic molecules)

**(g)Mechanics of Solids and Fluids:
**States of Matter inter atomic and inter molecular forces. Solids: elastic behavior, stress- strain relationship, Hooke’s law, Young modulus, bulk modulus, modulus of rigidity & some practical examples. Fluids: Pressure due t fluid column, Pascal’s law and its application (hydraulic lift and brakes) Effect of gravity on fluid pressure. Buoyancy, floatation, and Archimedes principle, Viscosity, Stoke’s law, terminal velocity, stream line flow, turbulent flow. Reynolds’s number. Bernoulli’s theorem and its application. Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact, application of surface tension, excess pressure inside a liquid drop and bubble, capillary rise and action of detergent.

**(h)Heat and Thermodynamics:
**Kinetic theory of gases- assumptions, concept of pressure, kinetic energy and temperature, r.m.s speed, degree of freedom, law of equipartition of energy; mean free path and Avogadro’s number. Thermal equilibrium and temperature (Zeroth law of thermodynamics); heat work and internal energy; thermal expansion- thermometry. First law of thermodynamics, specific heat, specific heat of gas at constant volume and pressure (mono atomic, diatomic gases). Specific heat of solids (Dulong and Petits’ law). Thermodynamics variables and equation of state, phase diagram, ideal gas equation; isothermal and adiabatic processes; reversible and irreversible processes Carnot’s engine and refrigerator or heat pump. Efficiency and co-efficient of performance, second law of thermodynamics and some practical applications. Transfer of heat- Conduction, convection and radiation. Thermal conductivity of solids; black body radiation; Kirchoff’s laws, Wein’s displacement law; Stefan’s law; Newton’s law of cooling; solar constant and determination of surface temperature of sun using Stefan’s law.

**(i)Oscillations:
**Periodic motion- period, frequency; displacement as a function of time and periodic functions. Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM) and its equation; Expression for velocity and acceleration of SHM. Oscillations of a spring; restoring force and force constant; Energy in SHM- Kinetic and potential energies; Simple pendulum – derivation of its time and period; Free; forced and damped oscillations; resonance; coupled oscillations.

**(j)Waves:
**Longitudinal and transverse wave; wave motion; Displacement relation for progressive wave. Principle of superposition of waves; reflection of waves; Standing waves in strings and pipes; fundamental and higher harmonics; Beats; Doppler’s effect; speed of sound in media.

**(k)Electrostatics:
**Frictional electricity; charges and their conservation; Couloumb’s law; forces between two point electric charges. Forces between multiple electric charges; Superposition principle and continous charge distribution. Electric fields and its physical significance; electric field due to a point charge; electric field lines; electric field due to a dipole and behavior of a dipole in a uniform electric field. Electric potential physical meaning; due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges; Equipotential difference; electric potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field. Electric flux; statement of Gauss’s theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly changed infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell. Conductors and insulators; presence of free charges and bound charges inside a conductor; Dielectrics and electric polarization; general concept of a capacitor and capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates; Van de Graff generator.

**(m)Current Electricity:
**Electric Current; flow of electric charge in a metallic conductor; drift velocity and mobility and their relation with electric current; Ohm’s law; electrical resistance; V-I characteristics; excerption of Ohm’s law; electrical resistivity and conductivity; classification of material in terms of conductivity; Superconductivity; Carbon resistors; colour code for carbon resistors; combination of resistances- series and parallel. Temprature dependence of resistance; internal resistance of a cell; Potential difference and e.m.f of a cell; combinations of cells in series and in parallel. Kirchoff’s laws – illustration by simple application. Wheatstone bridge; Potentiometer- principle and application to measure potential difference, and for comparing e.m.f of two cells. Electric power; thermal effects of current and Joule’s law, Chemical Effects of Current: Faraday’s law of electrolysis; Electrochemical Cells- Primary and secondary rechargeable cells; solid state cells; thermoelectricity- origin, elementary idea of seeback effect. Thermocouple. Thermo e.m.f neutral and inversion temperatures; measurements of temperature using a thermocouple.

**Magnetic effects of Current & Magnetism:
**Concept of Magnetic Field; Oested’s experiment; Biot – Savart law; magnetic field due to an infinitely long current carrying straight wire and a circular loop: Ampere’s circuital law and its applications to straight and toroidal solenoids; force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic fields; Forces between tow parallel current- carrying conductors; definition of ampere. Torque experienced by a current loop in a uniform magnetic field, moving coil galvanometer its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter. Current loop as a magnetic field intensity due to magnetic dipole along with the axis and perpendicular to the axis; Torque on a magnetic dipole in a uniform magnetic field; Barmagnet as an equivalent solenoid; magnetic field lines; earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements; para dia and ferromagnetic substances with examples; electromagnets and permanent magnets.

**Electromagnetic Induction & Alternating Currents:
**Electromagnetic induction, Faraday’s laws; induced emf and current; lenz’s law, Eddy currents; Self and mutual inductance; alternating currents; peak and rms values of alternating currents/voltage reactance and impedance; LC oscillations; LCR series circuit; resonant circuits and Q factor, Power in AC circuits; Wattless current; AC generator and transformer.

**Electromagnetic Waves:
**Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics; transverse nature of electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic spectrum (radio microwaves; infrared, optical, ultraviolet, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses, Propagation of electromagnetic waves in atmosphere.

**Optics:
**Refraction of light; total internal reflection and its applications; spherical lenses; thin lens formula; lens maker’ formula; magnification; power of lenses; combination of lenses in contact; refraction and dispersion of light due to prism; Scattering of light; blue colour of the sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset. Optical instruments-Compound microscope; astronomical telescope and their magnifying power. Wave front and Huygens’s principle; Reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surfacing using wave fronts Interference- Young’s double slit experiment and expression for fringe width, Coherent sources and sustained interference of light; diffraction due to single slit; width coherent sorces and sustained interference of light; diffraction due to single slit; width of central maximum; difference between interference and diffraction; Resolving power of microscope and telescope, Polarization – plane and polarized light; Brewster law; Use of plane polarized light and Polaroid.

**Dual nature of matter and radiation:
**Photo-electric effect; Einstein’s photo electric equation; Particle nature of light; photo cell; matter waves; wave nature of particles; De-Broglie relation; de Broglie wave lengths of an electron. Davisson Germer Experiment.

**Atomic Nucleus:
**Alpha particle scattering experiment; size of the nucleus; composition of the nucleus; protons and neutrons; nuclear instability; Radioactivity – Alpha Beta and Gamma particles; rays and their properties radioactive decay laws; simple explanation of decay; Beta – decay and gamma- decay. Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon its variation with mass number. Nature of nuclear forces; nuclear reaction, Nuclear fission and Nuclear Fusion.

**Solid and Semi- Conductor devices:
**Energy bands in solids; difference between metals insulators and semiconductors using band theory; intrinsic and extrinsic semi- conductors p-n junctions; semi conductor diode- characteristics in forward and reverse bias; diode as a rectifier; solar cell; photodiode. LED; Zener diode as a voltage regulator; Junction transistor; transistor action; characteristics of a transistor; transistor as an amplifier and oscillator; logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR); elementary ideas about IC.