KEAM 2015 Chemistry Syllabus:
Basic Concepts and Atomic Structure:
Laws of chemical combination: law of conservation of mass. Law of definite proportion. Law of multiple proportions. Gay-Lussac’s law of combining volumes. Dalton’s atomic theory. Mole concept. Atomic, molecular and molar masses. Chemical equations. Balancing and calculating based on chemical equations.
Atomic structure: fundamental particles. Rutherford model of an atom. Nature of electromagnetic radiation. Emission spectrum of hydrogen atom. Bohr model of hydrogen atom. Drawbacks of Bohr model. Dual nature of matter and radiation. De Broglie relation. Uncertainity principle. Wave function (mention only) atomic orbitals and their shapes (s, p and d orbitals)only. Quantum numbers. Electronic configurations of elements. Pauli’s exclusion principle. Hund’s rule. Aufbau principle
Bonding and Molecular Structure:
Kossel and lewis approach of bonding. Ionic bond, covalent character of ionic bond, lattice energy. Born-Haber cycle. Covalent bond. Lewis structure of covalent bond. Concept of orbital overlap. VSEPR theory and geometry of molecules. Polarity of covalent bond. Valence bond theory and hybridization (sp, sp2, sp3, dsp2, dsp3 and sp3d2). Resonance. Molecular orbital method. Bond order. Molecular orbital diagrams of homodiatomic molecules. Bond strength and magnetic behavior. Hydrogen bond. Coordinate bond. Metallic bond.
States of matter:
Gaseous state: Boyle’s law. Charles’ law. Avogadro’s hypothesis. Graham’s law of diffusion. Absolute scale of temperature. Ideal gas equation. Gas constant and its values. Dalton’s law of partial pressure. Aquenous tension. Kinetic theory of gases. Deviation of real gases from ideal behavior. Inter molecular interaction, van der Waals equation. Liquefaction of gases. Critical temperature.
Liquid State: properties of liquid. Vapour pressure and boiling point. Surface tension. Viscocity.
Solid State: Types of solids (ionic, covalent and molecular). Space lattice and unit cells. Cubic crystal systems. Close packing. Differential voids (tetrahedral and octahedral only) density calculations. Point defects (Frenkel and Schottyky). Electrical properties of solids. Conductors, semi conductors and insulators. Piezoelectric and pyroelectric crystals. Magnetic properties of solids. Diamagnetic, paramagnetic, ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic substances.
Periodic Properties of Elements and Hydrogen:
Classification of Elements: Mendeleev’s periodic table. Atomic number and modern periodic law. Long form of periodic table. Electronic configurations of elements and their positions in the periodic table. Classification into s-, p-, d- and f-block elements. Periodic properties: Ionization energy, electron affinity, atomic radii, valence and electro negativity.
Hydrogen: position in the periodic table, occurrence, isolation, preparation (including commercial), properties, reactions and uses. Isotopes of hydrogen. Hydrides: Molecular, saline and interstitial hydrides.
Water: structure of water molecule and its aggregates. Physical and chemical properties of water. Hard and soft water. Removal of hardness. Preparation and uses of heavy water: liquid hydrogen as fuel. S-block elements and principles of metallurgy.
Alkali metals: Occurrence, electronic configuration, trends in atomic and physical properties (ionization energy, atomic radii and ionic radii) electrode potential, and reactions with oxygen, hydrogen, halogens and liquid ammonia. Oxides, hydroxides and halides.
Alkaline earth metals: occurrence, electronic configuration, trends in atomic and physical properties, electrode potential, and reactions with oxygen, hydrogen and halogens. Oxides, hydroxides, halides and sulphides. Anomalous properties of lithium and beryllium.
Compounds of s-block elements: large scale preparation of NaOH and NaCO3, their properties and uses. Preparation and properties of CaO, Ca (OH)2, plaster of paris and MgSO4. Industrial uses of lime, limestone and cement.
Principles of metallurgy: occurrence of metals. Concentration of ores. General principles of extraction of metals from ore. Thermodynamic and electro chemical principles of metallurgy. Refining of metals. Extraction of zinc, aluminium, iron and copper.
General characteristics of p-block elements: atomic and physical properties. Oxidation states. trends in chemical reactivity of Groups 13, 14, 15, 16 and 17 elements.
Boron: Occurrence, isolation, physical and chemical properties. Borax and boric acid. Boron hydrides. Structure of diborane. Uses of boron and its compounds.
Carbon: Allotropes, properties, Oxides of Carbon
Nitrogen: terrestrial abundance and distribution, isolation, properties and chemical reactivity.
Ammonia: Haber process of manufacture, properties and uses.
Nitric acid: Ostwald process of manufacture and important uses.
Oxides of nitrogen: preparation and structures (skeletal only)
Oxygen: terrestrial abundance, isolation , properties and chemical reactivity.
Oxides: Acidic, basic and amphoteric oxides. Preparation, structure, properties and uses of ozone and hydrogen peroxide.
Silica: different forms and uses. Structures of silicates. Silicones, Zeolites, Uses of Silicon Tetra Chloride
Phosphorus: Production, allotropes and phosphine. Preparation and structures of PCI3, PCI5, oxyacids of phosphorus. Comparison of halides and hydrides of Group 15 elements.
Sulphur: Production, allotropes, oxides and halides, Oxoacids of Sulphur (structure only)
Sulphuric Acid: Manufacture, properties and uses. Comparison of oxides, halides and hydrides of Group 17 elements, Oxoacids of halogens (structure only), hydrides and oxides of chlorine. Interhalogen compounds.
Group 18 Elements: occurrence, isolation, atomic and physical properties, uses.
Compounds of xenon: Preparation of fluorides and oxides, and their reactions with water.
D-Block and F-Block Elements:
D-Block Elements: electronic configuration and general characteristics. Metallic properties, ionization energy, electrode potential, oxidation states, ionic radii, catalytic properties, coloured ions, complex formation, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds and alloys. Preparation and properties of KMnO4, K2Cr2O7.
Lanthanides: Occurrence, electronic configuration and oxidation states. Lanthanide contraction. Uses.
Actinides: Occurrence, electronic configuration and comparison with lanthanides.
System and surrounding: types of systems. Types of processes. Intensive and extensive properties. State functions and path functions. Reversible and irreversible processes.
First law of Thermodynamics: Internal energy and enthalpy. Application of first law of thermodynamics. Enthalpy changes during phase transition. Enthalpy changes in chemical reactions. Standard enthalpy of formation. Hess’s law of constant heat summation and numerical problems. Heat capacity and specific heat.
Second Law of Thermodynamics: Entropy and Gibbs free energy. Free Energy change and chemical equilibrium. Criteria for spontaneity.
Physical and Chemical Equilibria: Dynamic nature of equilibrium. Equilibria involving physical changes (solid-liquid, liquid-gas, dissolution of solids in liquids and dissolution of gases in liquids). General characteristics of equilibria involving physical processes.
Equilibria involving chemical systems: law of chemicals equilibrium. Magnitude of equilibrium constant. Numerical problems. Effect of changing conditions of systems at equilibrium (changes of concentration, temperature and pressure). Effect of catalyst. The Le Chatelier principle and its applications. Relationship between Kp and Kc. Ionic equilibrium. Ionization of weak and strong electrolytes.
Concepts of acids and bases: those of Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry and Lewis. Acid-base equilibrium. Ionization of water. pH scale. Salt hydrolysis. Solubility product. Common ion effect. Buffer action and buffer solutions.
Types of Solutions: Different concentration terms (normality, molarity, molality, mole fraction and mass percentage). Solubility of gases and solids. Vapour pressure of solutions and Raoult’s law. Deviation from Raoult’s law.
Colligative properties: Lowering of vapour pressure, elevation in boiling point, depression in freezing point and osmotic pressure. Ideal and non-ideal solutions. Determinations of molecular mass. Abnormal molecular mass. The van’t Hoff factor and related numerical problems
Redox Reactions and Electrochemistry:
Oxidation and reduction: Electron transfer concept. Oxidation number. Balancing equations of redox reactions. Oxidation number method and ion electron method (half reaction method)
Faraday’s law of electrolysis: Quantitative aspects. Electrolytic conduction . conductance. Molar conductance. Kohlrausch’s law and its application. Electrode potential and electromotive force (e.m.f) Reference electrode (SHE only). Electrolytic and Galvanic cells. Daniel Cell. The Nernst equation. Free Corrosion and its prevention.
Electrochemical theory of rusting of iron. Method of prevention of corrosion. Galvanization of cathodic protection.
Rate of reaction. Average and instantaneous rates. Rate expressions. Rate constant. Rate law. Order and molecularity. Integrated rate law expressions for zero and first order reactions and their deviations. Units of rate constant. Half life period. Temperature dependence of rate constant. Arrhenius equation. Activation energy, Collision theory (Elementary theory) and related numerical problems. Elementary and complex reactions with examples.
Adsorption: Physical and chemical adsorption. Factors, affecting adsorption. Effect of pressure. Freundlisch adsorption isotherm. Catalysis, enzymes. Zeolites.
Colloids: Colloids and suspensions. Dispersion medium and dispersed phase. Types of colloids: Lyophobic, lyophilic, multimolecular , macromolecular and associated colloids. Preparation, properties and protection of colloids. Gold number. Hardy Schulze rule. Emulsions.
Coordination Compounds and Organometallics:
Ligand. Coordination number. IUAC nomenclature of coordination compounds mononuclear, Isomerism in coordination compounds. Geometrical, optical and structural isomerism. Bonding in coordination compounds. Werner’s coordination theory. Valence bond approach. Hybridization and geometry. Magnetic properties of octahedral, tetrahedral and square planar complexes. Introduction to crystal field theory. Splitting of d orbitals in octahedral and tetrahedral fields (qualitative only). Importance of coordination compounds in qualitative analysis and biological systems such as chlorophyll, hemoglobin and vitamin B12 (structures not included)
Basic principles, Purification and Characterization of Organic Compounds:
Distinction between organic and inorganic compounds. Tetra valence of carbon. Catenation. Hybridization (sp, sp2 and sp3). Shapes of simple molecules. General introduction to naming of organic compounds. Trivial names and IUPAC nomenclature. Illustration with examples. Structural isomerism. Examples of functional groups containing oxygen, hydrogen, sulphur and halogens.
Purification of carbon compounds: filtration, crystallization, sublimation, distillation, differential extraction and chromatography (column and paper only)
Qualitative Analysis: Detection of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and halogens.
Quantitative Analysis: estimation of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and halogen (principles only)and related numerical problems. Calculation of empirical and molecular formulae.
Classification of hydrocarbons.
Alkanes and cycloalkanes: Nomenclature and confrontation of ethane. 3D structures and 2D projections (Sawhorse and Newman)
Alkenes and Alkynes: Nomenclature. Geometrical isomerism in alkenes. Stability of alkenes. General methods of preparation. Physical and chemical properties. Markownioff’s rule. Peroxide effect. Acidic Character of alkynes. Polymerization reaction of dienes.
Aromatic hydrocarbons: nomenclature, isomerism. Benzene and its holologues. Structure of Benzene. Resonance. Decalisation in benzene. Concept of aromaticity (an elementary idea) chemical reactions of benzene. Polynuclear hydrocarbons and their toxicity.
Organic reaction Mechanism:
Electronic displacement in a covalent bond: inductive, electromeric, resonance and hyperconjugation effects. Fission of covalent bond. Free radicals, electrophiles, nucleophiles, carbocations and carbanions.
Common types of organic reactions: substitution, addition, elimination and rearrangement reactions. Illustration with examples. Mechanism of electrophilic addition reactions in alkenes. Concept of delocalization of electrons. Mechanism of electrophilic substitution reactions. Directive influence of substituent’s and their effect on reactivity (in benzene ring only)
Stereoisomerism: geometrical isomerism and optical isomerism. Specific rotation. Chirality and chiral objects. Chiral molecules. Configuration and Fischer projection. Asymmetric carbon. Elements of symmetry. Compounds containing one chiral center. Enantiomers. Racemic form. Racemization. Compounds containing two chiral centers. Diastereo isomers. Meso form. Resolution.
Organic Compounds with functional groups containing halogens:
Haloalkanes and Haloarenes: Nomenclature and general methods of preparation. Physical properties. Nature of C-X bond in haloalkanes and Haloarenes. Chemical properties and uses of chloromethane and chlorobenzene
Polyhalogen compounds: Preparation and properties of chloroform and iodoform. Uses of some commercially important compounds (chloroform, iodoform, DDT, BHC and Freon). UNIT 20: ORGANIC COMPOUNDS WITH FUNCTIONAL GROUPS CONTAINING OXYGEN
Alcohols: Nomenclature. Important methods of preparation (from aldehydes, ketones, alkyl halides and hydration of alkenes) manufacture of ethanol from molasses. Physical and chemical properties. Reactions with alkali metals and acids. Formation of alkenes, ethers and esters. Reactions with PX2, PX5, SOCI2. Oxidation of alcohols. Dehydrogentation.
Phenols: Nomenclature. Preparation of phenol (from sodium benzenesulphonate, benzene diazoniumchloride and chlorobenzene). Physical and chemical properties of phenol. Acidity of phenol. Action of phenol with FeCI3. Bromination, sulphonation and nitration of phenol.
Ethers: nomenclature. Methods of preparation (from alcohols and alkyl halides). Williamson’s synthesis. Physical and chemical properties. Formation of peroxides. Actions with HI, HF and H2SO4)
Some Commercially important compounds:j Methanol, ethanol (fermentation)
Aldehydes and ketones: Nomenclature. Electronic structure of carbonyl group. Methods of preparation (from alcohols, acid chlorides, ozonolysis of alkenes and hydration of alkynes). Friedel- Crafts acylation for acetophenone. General properties (physical and chemical) of aldehydes and ketones. Formation of paraldehyde and metaldehyde. Addition of NaHSO3, NH3 and its derivatives, Grignard reagent, HCN and alcohols. Oxidation reactions with Tollen’s reagent and Fehling’s solutions. Oxidation of Ketones. Reduction with LiALH4. Clemmensen reduction. Wolff-Kischner reduction. Aldol condensation. Cannizzaro reactions.
Carboxylic Acid: Nomenclature, Electronic structure of COOH. Methods of Preparation (from alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, alkyl benzenes and hydrolysis of cyanide). Physical properties. Effects of substitutents on acid strength. Chemical reactions.
Organic compounds with functional groups containing Nitrogen:
Amines: Nomenclature, Primary, secondary and tertiary amines. Methods of preparation, physical properties. Basic nature. Chemical reactions. Separation of primary, secondary and tertiary amines. Cyanides and isocyanides. Diazonium salts. Preparation and chemical reactions of benzene diazoniumchloride in synthetic organic chemistry.
Polymers and Biomolecules:
Polymers: classification. Addition and condensation polymerization. Copolymerization. Natural rubber and vulcanization. Synthetic rubbers. Condensation polymers, biopolymers. Biodegradable polymers. Some commercial important polymers: Polyethene, polystyrene, PVC, Teflon, PAN, BUNA-N, BUNA-S, neoprene, terylene, glyptal, nylon-6, nylon-66 and Bakelite.
Biomolecules: classification of carbohydrates. Structure and properties of glucose.
Reducing and nonreducing sugars: properties of sucrose, maltose and lactose (structures not included)
Polysaccharides: properties of starch and cellulose.
Proteins: amino acids, Zwitterions. Peptide bond. Polypeptides. Primary, secondary and tertiary structures of protein. Denaturation of proteins. Enzymes. Nucleic acids. Types of nucleic acids. DNA and RNA and their chemical composition. Primary structure of DNA. Double Helix
Vitamins: Classification and functions in biosystems
Environmental Chemistry and Chemistry in Everyday life:
Soil, water and air pollutions. Ozone layer. Smog. Acid rain. Green house effect and global warming. Industrial air pollution. Importance of green chemistry.
Chemicals in medicine and health care. Drug-target interaction, analgesics, tranquillizers, antiseptics, antacids, antihistamines, antibiotics, disinfectants, antifertility drugs, chemical in foods, preservatives, artificial sweetening agents, antioxidants and edible colours, cleansing agents, soaps and synthetic detergents, antimicrobials.