JEE Mains 2015 Chemistry Syllabus:
Section A: Physical Chemistry:
Unit 1: Some Basics Concepts in Chemistry:
Matter and its nature, Dalton’s atomic theory; Concept of atom, molecule, element and compound; Physical quantities and their measurements in Chemistry; precision and accuracy; significant figures; S I Units; dimensional analysis; Laws of chemical combination; Atomic and molecular masses; mole concept, molar mass; percentage composition; empirical and molecular formulae; Chemical equations and Stoichiometry.
Unit 2: States of Matter:
Classification of matter into Solid, Liquid and gaseous States
Solid State: Classification of solids: molecular, ionic,, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea); Bragg’s Law and its applications; Unit Cell and lattices, packing in solids (fcc, bcc and hcp lattices) voids, calculations involving unit cell and parameters, imperfection in solids; Electrical and magnetic properties.
Unit 3: Atomic Structure:
Thomson and Rutherford atomic models and their limitations; Nature of electromagnetic radiation, photoelectric effect; Spectrum of hydrogen atom, Bohr model of hydrogen atom, Bohr model of hydrogen atom – its postulates, derivation of the relations for energy of the electron and radii of the different orbits, limitations of Bohr’s model; Dual nature of matter, de-Broglie’s relationship; Heisenberg uncertainty principle. Elementary ideas of quantum mechanics, quantum mechanical model of atom, its important features. Concept of atomic orbitals as one electron wave function; Variation with r for 1s and 2s orbitals; various quantum numbers (principal, angular momentum and magnetic quantum numbers) and their significance; shapes of S, P and D orbitals; electron spin and spin quantum number; Rules for filling electrons in orbitals- aufbau principle; Pauli’s exclusion principle and Hund’s rule, electronic configuration of elements; extra stability of half-filled and complete filled orbitals.
Unit 4: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure:
- Kossel – Lewis approach to chemical bond formation; concept of ionic and covalent bonds
- Ionic bonding: Formation of ionic bonds, factors affecting the formation of ionic bonds; calculation of lattice enthalpy
- Covalent Bonding: Concept of electronegativity; Fajan’s rule, dipole moment; Valence shell electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory and shaped of simple molecules.
- Quantum mechanical approach to covalent bonding: Valence bond theory- its important features, concept of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals; Resonance
- Molecular Orbital Theory: its important features; LCAOs , types of molecular orbitals (bonding, antibonding) sigma and pi- bonds; molecular orbital electronic configurations of homonuclear diatomic molecules; concept of bond order; bond length and bond energy;
- Elementary idea of metallic bonding. Hydrogen bonding and its applications.
Unit 5: Chemical Thermodynamics:
Fundamental of thermodynamics: System and surrounding; extensive and intensive properties; state functions; types of processes.
First law of thermodynamics: Concept of work, heat internal energy and enthalpy; heat capacity; molar heat capacity; Hess’s law of constant heat summation; Enthaplies of bond dissociation; combustion; formation; atomization; sublimation; phase transition; hydration; ionization and solution.
Second law of thermodynamics: Spontaneity of processes; the universe and the system as criteria for spontaneity; Standard Gibbs energy change; and equilibrium constant
Unit 6: Solutions:
Different methods for expressing concentration of solution – molality, molarity, mole fraction, percentage (by volume and mass both), vapour pressure of solutions and Raoult’s law – ideal and non- ideal solutions, vapour pressure – composition, plots for ideal and non-ideal solutions; Colligative properties of dilute solutions –relative lowering of vapour pressure, depression of freezing point, elevation of boiling point and osmotic pressure; Determination of molecular mass using colligative properties; Abnormal value of molar mass; van’t Hoff factor and its significance.
Unit 7: Equilibrium:
- Meaning of Equilibrium; concept of dynamic equilibrium
- Equilibria involving physical processes: Solid- liquid, liquid gas and solid – gas equilibria, Henry’s law, general characteristics of equilibrium involving physical processes.
- Equilibria involving chemical processes: law of chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constants and their significance, significance in chemical equilibria, factors affecting equilibrium concentration, pressure, temperature, effect of catalyst; Le chatelier’s principle
- Ionic equilibrium: weak and strong electrolytes, ionization of electrolytes, various concepts of acids and bases (Arrhenius, Bronsted – Lowry and Lewis) and their ionization; acid – base equilibria (including multistate ionization) and ionization constants, ionization of water, pH scale, common ion effect; hydrolysis of salts and pH of their solutions, solubility of sparingly soluble salts and solubility products; buffer solutions.
Unit 8: Redox Reactions and Electrochemistry:
Electronic concepts of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions; oxidation number; rules for assigning oxidation number, rules for assigning oxidation number; balancing of redox reactions.
Electrolytic and metallic conduction, conductance in electrolytic solutions, molar conductivities and their variation with concentration: Kohlrausch’s law and its applications.
Electrochemical cells- Electrolytic and Galvanic cells, different types of electrodes; electrode potentials including standard electrode potential, half cell and cell reactions, emf of a Galvanic cell and its measurement; Nernst equation and its applications; Relationship between cell potential and Gibbs’s energy change; Dry cell and lead accumulator; Fuel Cells.
Unit 9: Chemical Kinetics:
Rate of chemical reaction; factors affecting the rate of reactions: concentration, temperature, pressure and catalyst; elementary and complex reactions; order and molecularity of reaction; rate law, rate constant and its units, differential and integral forms of zero and first order reactions; their characteristics and half – lives; effect of temperature on rate of reactions – Arrhenius theory, activation energy and its calculation, collision theory of bi molecular gaseous reactions (no derivation)
Unit 10: Surface Chemistry:
Adsorption: Physisorption and Chemisorption and their characteristics; factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids- Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms; adsorption from their solutions.
Catalysis – Homogeneous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity of solid catalysts enzyme catalysis and its mechanism
Colloidal State: distinction among true solutions; colloids and suspensions; classification of colloids – lyophilic, lyophobic; multimolecular, macromolecular and associated colloids (micelles) preparation and properties of colloids – Tyndall effect, Brownian movement; electrophoresis, dialysis, coagulation and flocculation; Emulsions and their characteristics.
Section B: Inorganic Chemistry:
Unit 11: Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties:
Modem periodic law and present form of the periodic table; s, p, d and f block elements, periodic trends in properties of elements atomic and ionic radii; ionization enthalpy; electron gain enthalpy; valence, oxidation states and chemical reactivity..
Unit 12: General Principles and processes of Isolation of Metals:
Modes of occurrence of elements in nature, minerals, ores; Steps involved in the extraction of metals – concentration, reduction (chemical and electrolytic methods) and refining with special reference to the extraction of Al, Cu, Zn and Fe; Thermodynamic and electrochemical principles involving in the extraction of metals.
Unit 13: Hydrogen:
Position of hydrogen in periodic table; isotopes; preparation; properties and uses of hydrogen; Physical and chemical properties of water and heavy water; Structure, preparation, reactions and uses of hydrogen peroxide; Classification of hydrides – ionic, covalent and interstitial; Hydrogen as a fuel.
Unit 14 : S-block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals):
Group – 1 and 2 elements
General Introduction, electronic configuration and general trends in physical and chemical properties of elements, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationships;
Preparation and properties of some important compounds – sodium carbonate and sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate; Industrial uses of lime, limestone; Plaster of Paris and Cement; Biological significance of Na, K, Mg and Ca.
Unit 15: P-Block Elements:
Group 13 to Group 18 Elements
General Introduction: Electronic configuration and general trends in physical and chemical properties of elements across the periods and down the groups; unique behavior of the first element in each group.
Group wise study of the p-block elements Group 13:
Preparation, properties and uses of boron and aluminium; Structure, properties and uses of borax; boric acid; diborane; boron trifluoride; aluminium chloride and alums.
Tendency for catenation; Structure; properties and uses of Allotropes and oxides of carbon; silicon tetrachloride; silicates; zeolites and silicones.
Properties and uses of nitrogen and phosphorus; Allotrophic forms of phosphorus; Preparation; properties; structure and uses of ammonia, nitric acid, phospine and phosphorus halides; (PCI3 and pcl5) Structure of oxides and oxoacids of nitrogen and phosphorus.
Preparation, properties, structures and uses of ozone; Allotropic forms of sulphur; Preparation; properties; structures and uses of sulphuric acid (including its industrial preparation); Structures of oxoacids of sulphur.
Preparation; properties and uses of hydrochloric acid; Trends in the acidic nature of hydrogen halides; Structure of Interhalogen compounds and oxides and oxoacids of halogens.
Occurrence and uses of noble gases; Structures of fluorides and oxides of xenon
Unit 16: d and f Block Elements:
General introduction; electronic configuration; occurrence and characteristics; general trends in properties of the first row transistion elements – physical properties; ionization enthalpy, oxidation states; atomic radii; color; catalytic behavior; magnetic properties; complex formation; interstitial compounds; alloy formation; Preparation ; properties and uses of K2, Cr2, O7 KMnO4
Inner Transistion Elements
Lanthanoids – electronic configuration; oxidation states and lanthanoid contraction
Actinoids: Electronic configuration and oxidation states.
Unit 17: Co-ordination Compounds:
Introduction to co-ordination compounds; Werner’s theory; ligands; co-ordination number; denticity; chelation; IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear co-ordination compounds, isomerism; Bonding Valence bond approach and basic ideas of Crystal field theory, color and magnetic properties; Importance of co-ordination compounds in (qualitative analysis, extraction of metal and in biological systems)
Unit 18: Enviromental Chemistry:
- Enviromental Pollution – Atmosphere, water and soil
- Atmospheric Pollution – Tropospheric and Stratospheric
- Tropospheric Pollutants – Gaseous pollutants: Oxides of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur; hydrocarbons; their sources; harmful effects and prevention; Green house effect and Global warming; Acid rain’
- Particulate Pollutants: smoke, dust , smog, fumes, mist, their sources, harmful effects and their prevention.
- Stratospheric pollution: Formation and breakdown of ozone; depletion of ozone layer; its mechanism and effects.
- Water Pollution: Major Pollutants such as pathogens; organic wastes and chemical pollutants; their harmful effects and prevention
- Soil Pollution: Major pollutants such as Pesticides (insecticides, herbicides and fungicides) their harmful effects and prevetion;
- Strategies to control environmental pollution.
Section C: Organic Chemistry:
Unit 19: Purification and Characterization of Organic Compounds:
- Purification: Crystallization, sublimation, distillation, differential extraction and chromatography – principles and their applications
- Qualitative analysis: Detection of nitrogen; sulphur; phosphorus and halogens
- Quantitative analysis: (basic principles only) estimation of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, halogens, sulphur, phosphorus.
- Calculations of empirical formulae and molecular formulae; Numerical problems in organic quantitative analysis.
Unit 20: Some Basic principles of Organic Chemistry:
Tetravalency of Carbon: shapes of simple molecules – hybridization (s and p); Classification of organic compounds based on functional groups: and those containing halogens; oxygen; nitrogen and sulphur; Homologous series; Isomerism – structural and stereoisomerism
Nomenclature (Trivial and IUPAC):
Covalent bond fission – Homolytic and heterolytic; free radicals, carbocations and carbonions; Stability of carbocations and free radicals, electrophiles and nucleophiles.
Electronic displacement in a covalent bond:
Inductive effect; electromeric effect; resonance and hyperconjugation
Common types of organic reactions- Substitution, addition, elimination and rearrangement
Unit 21: Hydrocarbons:
Classification, isomerism, IUPAC nomenclature; general methods of preparation; properties and reactions.
Alkanes – Conformations: Sawhorse and Newman projections of Ethane; Mechanism of halogenations of alkanes
Alkenes- Geometrical isomerism; Mechanism of electrophilic addition: addition of hydrogen; halogens, water, hydrogen halides (Markownikoff’s and peroxide effect); Ozonolysis and polymerization.
Alkynes- Acidic character; Addition of hydrogen; halogens, water and hydrogen halides; Polymerization
Aromatic hydrocarbons: Nomenclature; benzene – structure and aromaticity; Mechanism of electrophilic substitution: halogenations, nitration, Friedel – Craft’s alkylation and acylation, directive influence of functional group in mono – substituted benzene.
Unit 22: Organic Compounds containing Halogens:
General methods of preparation; properties and reaction; Nature of C-X bond; Mechanism of substitution reactions
Uses; Environmental effects of chloroform; iodoform; freons and DDT
Unit 23; Organic Compounds Containing Oxygen:
General methods of preparation, properties , reactions and uses.
Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers:
Alcohols: Identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanisms of dehydration
Phenols: Acidic nature, electrophilic substitution reactions; halogenations, nitration and sulponation, Reimer- Tiemann reaction
Aldehyde and Ketones: Nature of Carbonyl group: Nucleophilic addition to >C=O group, relative reactivities of aldehydes and ketones; Important reactions such as Nucleophilic addition reactions (addition of HCN, Nh3 and its derivatives) Grignard reagent; oxidation; reduction (Wolff Kishner and Clemmensen) acidity of hydrogen, aldol condensation, cannizzaro reaction, Haloform reaction;
Chemical tests to distinguish between aldehydes and ketones
Acidic Strength and factors affecting it
Unit 24: Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen:
General methods of preparation, properties, reactions and uses.
Amines: Nomenclature, classification, Structure, basic character and identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines and their basic character.
Diazonium Salts: Importance in synthetic organic chemistry
Unit 25: Polymers:
General Introduction and classification of polymers; general methods of polymerization – addition and condensation, copolymerization;
Natural and synthetic rubber and vulcanization; some important polymers with emphasis on their monomers and uses – polythene, nylon, polyester and Bakelite
Unit 26: Biomolecules:
General introduction and importance of Biomolecules
Carbohydrates – Classification: aldoses and ketones; monosaccharides (glucose and fructose) and constituent monosaccharides of oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose and maltose)
Proteins – Elementary idea of amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides; proteins; primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure (qualitative idea only) denaturation of proteins, enzymes
Vitamins: Classification and functions
Nucleic acids: Chemical constitution of DNA and RNA
Biological functions of nucleic acids
Unit 27: Chemistry in Everyday Life:
Chemicals in medicines: Analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamine – their meaning and common examples
Chemicals in Foods – Preservatives, artificial sweetening agents – common examples
Cleaning soaps- Soaps and detergents , cleansing action
Unit 28: Principles Related to Practical chemistry:
- Detection of extra elements (N,S halogens) in organic compounds; Detection of the following functional groups: (aldehyde and ketone) carboxyl and amino groups in organic compounds.
- Chemistry involved in the preparation of the following:
- Inorganic compounds: Mohr’s salts, potash alum
- Organic Compounds: Acetanilide, pnitroacetanilide, aniline yellow; iodoform
- Chemistry involved in the titrimetric exercises – acids bases and the use of indicators, oxalic acid vs KMnO4, Mohr’s Salt vs KMnO4
- Chemical principles involved in the qualitative salt analysis:
- Chemical principles involving in the following experiments:
- Enthalpy of solution of CuSO4; Enthalpy of neutralization of strong acid and strong base; Preparation of lyophilic and lyophobic sols; kinetic study of reaction of iodile ion with hydrogen peroxide at room temperature.