Dr. DY Patil AIET 2015 Chemistry Syllabus:
Atomic structure and nature of chemical bonds:
i.Introduction, electronic theory of valency, limitations.
ii.VB Theory-postulates, overlapping of atomic orbitals.
a.S-S in H2 molecule
b.P-P in halogen molecule
c.S-P in Hexmolecule
iii.The concept of hybrid orbitals and geometry of molecules
a.Tetrahedral (SP3) hybridization in CH4, Nh3, H2O
b.Trigonal hydridization (SP2) in BF3 and C2H4
- Diagonal hybridization (SP) in Bef, and C2H2
iii. Bond Energy-Average Bond energy, factors affecting bond energy
iv.The uncertainity principle, orbitals and Quantum numbers shapes of orbitals, Electronic configuration of atoms.
Chemical Thermodynamics and Energetics:
ii.Concepts in Thermodynamics-System, isolated, closed and open system, Homegeneous and heterogeneous system. Thermodynamic equilibrium, nature and types of processes, isothermal and adiabatic processes, reversible and irreversible processes.
iii.Nature of work and heat, units of energy and work in thermodynamics, work of pressure, volume, maximum work in reversible isothermal processes, simple numerical problems.
iv.First law of Thermodynammics- Relation between mass and energy, internal energy, change in internal energy and mathematical deduction of the first law of Thermodynamics. Q=E+W, simple numerical problems Second law of Thermodynamics: Entropy, free energy, spontaneity of a chemical reaction, free energy change and chemical equilibrium, free energy as energy available for useful work.
v.Enthalpy (H) of a system, change in enthalpy mathematical derivation, numerical problem and conservation of H related to endothermic and exothermic reaction.
vi.Thermochemistry Endothermic and exothermic reaction, heat of reaction, heat of neutralization, Head of formation H=(Product)-H(Reactant), effect of temperature on heat reaction (Kirchoff’s equation), numerical problem.
vii.Internal energy and change in internal energy.
ii.Electrolysis, electrolytic cells
iii.Faraday’s laws of electrolysis, simple numerical problem
iv.Electrochemical cells-Construction, working, of simple voltatic cell (Daniel Cell), convention used in S the representation of galvanic cell, use of salt bridge, type of electrodes, hydrogen electrode, calomel electrode and measurement of electrode potetials
v.Concept of electrode potential- electronation and delectronation, (Nerst Theory), S.D.P. and e.m.f of a cell e.f.m series and its application, simple numerical problems on e.f.m of a cell.
vi.Common types of cells-Dry cell accumulator
ii.Arhenius theory of acids and bases
iii.Lowry and Bronsted concepts of acids and bases
iv.Lewis concept of acids and bases
v.Strong and weak acid and bases, degree of dissociation, dissociation constant, Ostwald dilution formula. Simple problems
vi.Ionisation of water, Ionic product of water (Kw)
vii.H ion concentration, pH and pOH-pH+pOH=14 numerical problems
viii. Commonion effects, Buffer solution, Mechanism of buffer action, solubility product and its application numerical problems on solubility product.
ix.Hydrolysis of salts, Hydrolysis constant, Relation between hydrolysis constant and dissociation constant.
ii.Adsorption as a surface phenomenon, difference in type of adsorption and absorption, factors affecting adsorption, types of adsorption.
iii.Freundlich’s adsorption isotherm, Application in water purification, catalyst, adsorption indicate and chromatography
iv.Colloids-Introduction, colloidal state of matter disperse phase dispersion medium, few examples of colloidal solution.
v.Preparation of colloidal solutions
a.Dispersion method (electrical and mechanical)
b.Condensation methods (oxidation and reduction) properties of colloidal solutions, general properties, (electrophoresis and electroosomsis) coagulation.
vi.Gels- Definition, example, type, (D/W, W/O) prosperities and uses
viii.Application of Colliods-food, medicine, sewage, precipitation of smoke
Nuclear and Radio chemistry:
ii.Characteristics of nulceons, mass number, atomic number, isotopes and isobars.
iii.Nuclear stability, mass defect, binding energy, average binding energy, simple numerical problem on the binding energy
iv.Radioactivity-Radioactive decay, nature of radiations, radioactive disintegration constant, half life period, mathematical derivation for the decay constant- and half life (t1/2, simple numerical problems, Artifica radioactivity and artificial transmutation of elements.
V.Nuclear reactions, Radio isotopes and their uses-carbon dating, production of synthetic elements, medicine, agriculture.
Chemical of Third Row Elements:
ii.Position of third row elements in periodic table.
iv.Periodic trend-reducing and oxidizing characters, ionization potential, electropositive and electronegative character and hence metallic and non-metallic character
v.Nature of bonding in crystal lattice
vi.Explanation of prosperities of metallic solids- conductivity, metallic luster, malleability, ductibility.
vii.Acidic and basic character of oxides and hydroxyl compounds of third row elements. Hydrogen-Position in periodic table, isotopes, properties, reaction and elements. Oxygen – Position in periodic table, preparation, reaction uses, ozone. Water and hydrogen peroxide structure of water molecule, physical and chemical prosperities of water, hard and soft water. Hydrogen peroxides-Preparation, Properties, structure and uses. Nitrogen-Preparation, properties, uses, compounds of nitrogen.
Fluorine and Hydrogen Fluoride:
ii.Position of halogens in –periodic table, electronic configuration, general principles of halogens.
iii.Flourine- Occurrence, preparation, properties, reactions, and uses.
iv.Hydrogen-flouride and hydrofluoric acid-preparation, properties, reactions and uses.
ii.Position of silicon in periodic table, electronic configuration
iii.Silicon-occurrence, preparation, properties and uses
iv.Silicates, structure of simple silicates, nature of Si-O bond, tetrahedral geometry of Si 04 units in silicates. Halogen
Derivatives of Alkanes:
ii.Classification, Mono, di, tri and tetrahalogen derivations of alkanes.
iii.Monohalogen derivatives (alkylhalides)
a.Nomenclature –Trivial and I.U.P.A.C system
c.Halogenation of alkanes
d.Addition of Hx to alkanes
e.Action of P and PXs to Sod2 alcohols (ethyl bromide C2H5Br to be taken as a representative number)
iv.Reactions of alky halides
a.Substitution reactions with Alkalies KCN, Ammonia, Sodium alkoxide, R-COOAg
c.Formation of Grignards reagent
d.Elimination-Action of alcoholic KOH
v.a.Introduction of Homolytic and heterolytic fission explantion of fission taking compound A-B
b.Types of Reagents:
1.Electrophillic with suitable examples
2.Nucleupophillic with suitable examples
c.Mobillity of electrons in single and double bonds
vi.SN1 and SN2 reaction mechanism:
a.Mechanism of alkaline hydrolysis of methyl bromide (SN2 mechanism)
b.Alkaline hydrolysis oft-Butyl bromide (SN1 mechanism)
Following points are to be emphasized: polarization of light by Nicol prism Asymmetric carbon atom optically active (compounds, definition with examples of lactic acid (Dextro, Leavo and Racemic forms) Optically activity of 2-chlorobutane to be discussed on the following points of asymmetric Carbon atom Two non-superimposable mirror image structures Amixture and its optical inactivity
viii. Dihalogen Derivatives:
Preparation of C2H4CI2 Two isomers
preparation of ethylene dichloride by
a.Addition of CI2 to ethane
b.Ethylene glycol and PCI5
Preparation of ethylidence chloride from
a.Acetaldehyde and PCI5
b.Acetylene and HCI
ix.Trihalogen Derivatives of CH4:
Preparation of chloroform and Iodoform General physical and chemical properties
e.Action of HNO3
Organic Hydroxy Compounds:
Hydrolysis of alky halides
Hydration of Alkene by acid Reduction of Aldehydes and ketone by
a.Catalytic method using Nickel
Properties and Reaction:
General Physical and Chemical Properties
a.Na, Hx, PCB, PCI5
c.Oxidation of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols
Aromatic hydroxyl compounds-Phenol as a representative compounds
b.Benzene Sulphonic acid
iii.Physical properties and chemical reactions
Distinction between alcohol and phenol, uses of phenol Aldehydes and Ketones:
Oxidation of alcohols
Hydrolysis of gemdihalides
From Grignard reagent,
From calcium salts of acids
a.Addition to Carbony1 compounds HCN, NaHCO3 NH3, Grignard reagent
b.Condensation reactions- (NH2OH), C5H5NHNH2
c.Aldol condensation, Acetaldehyde with dil alkani, similar reactions with ketones
d.Cannizzaro’s reaction-Action of conc. NAOH on formaldehye
e.Reduction of Aldehydes and Ketones, catalytic hydrogenation
f.Reducing properties of Aldehydes Fehling solution, Tollen’s reagent, Schiff’s reagent
Acids and Esters:
a.Oxidation of primary alcohols, aldehyde
b.Hydrolysis of alky1 cyanides
c.Grignard reagent and CO2
b.Antyride formation by using P205
b.Preparation: Acid and Alcohol and acid anhydride Alcohol and acid chloride Alkylhalide and Ag-salt of acid
c.Reacion of ethyl acetate Hydrolysis with acid and alkali Action of Grignar reagent users of esters
ii.Definition: Classification, simple and mixed ethers
b.Continuous etherification process
c.Alcohol and Diazomethane
iii.Physical and chemical properties:
a.Action of HI on simple and mixed ethers in cold and hot
b.Hydrolysis by dil. H2SO4 uses of dethly ether
a.Haloalkanes and Ammonia
b.Reduction of Oxime, nitriles and nitroalkanes
iv.Properties: Physical and Chemical
a.Basic nature on the basis of the lewis concept
b.Acetylation by acetyl chloride and acetic anhy dride
c.Action of HNO2 on primary, Secondary and tertiary amines yielding quaternary
Carbohydrates, Proteins and Fats:
ii.Carbohydrates: Classification, mono di and polysaccharide preparation of glucose from sucrose and starch
iii.Proteins: Classification, simple conjugated and derived proteins. Hydrolysis of protein to produce amino acids peptide linkage colour tests:
iv.Fats and Oils
Glycerol-as atrihydroxy alcohol, fatty acid Esters of glycerol with fatty acids Saponification, Hydrogentation.
ii.Definition of fibers: Classification as- natural and artificial fibers
iii.Preparation: properties and used of Nylon 6, Nylon 66, Terylene, Teflon, PVC, Polystyrene.
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