Chemistry Syllabus: JEE Mains 2015:
Section A: Physical Chemistry:
Unit 1: Some Basic Concepts in Chemistry:
Matter and its nature, Daltons atomic theory, concept of atom, molecule, element and compound, physical quantities and their measurements in chemistry, precision and accuracy, significant figures, SI units, dimensional analysis, laws of chemical combination, atomic molecule masses, mole concept, molar mass, percentage composition, empirical and molecular formulae, chemical equations and Stoichiometry.
Unit 2: States of Matter (Classification of Matter into Solid, Liquid and Gaseous State):
Gaseous State: measurable properties of gases, gas laws- Boyle law, charle’s law, graham law of diffusion, avogardo’s law, dalton’s law of partial pressure, concept of absolute scale of temperature, ideal gas equation, kinetic theory of gases (only postulates) concept of average, root mean square and most probable velocities, real gases, deviation from ideal behavior, compressibility factor and van der Waals equation.
Liquid State: properties of liquids, vapour pressure, viscosity an surface tension and effect of temperature of them (qualitative treatment only)
Solid State: classification of solids, molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids(elementary idea) Bragg law and its application, unit cell and lattices, packaging in solids (fcc, bcc and hcp lattices) voids, calculations involving unit cell parameters, imperfection in solids, electrical, magnetic and dielectric properties.
Unit 3: Atomic Structure:
Thomson and Rutherford atomic models and their limitations, nature of electromagnetic radiation, photoelectric effect, spectrum of hydrogen atom, Bohr model of hydrogen atom- its postulates, derivation of the relation for energy of the electron and radii of the different orbit, limitations of Bohr model, dual nature of matter, de-brogile’s relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle. Elementary ideas of quantum mechanics, quantum mechanical model of an atom, its important features, concept of atomic orbitals as one electron wave functions, variation of y and y2, with r for 1s and 2s orbitals, various quantum members (principals, and angular momentum and magnetic quantum numbers) and their significance, shapes of S P and D orbitals, electron spin and spin quantum number, rules for filling electrons in orbitals- aufbau principle, pauli exclusion principle and Hund’s rule, electronic configuration of elements, extra stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals.
Unit 4: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure:
Kossel- Lewis approach to chemical bond formation, concept of ionic and covalent bonds.
Ionic Bonding- formation of ionic bonds, factors affecting the formation of ionic bonds, calculation of lattice enthalpy.
Covalent Bonding- concept of electro negativity, fajan’s rule, dipole moment, Valence Shell, electron pair repulsion theory and shapes of simple molecules.
Quantum Mechanical Approach to Covalent Bonding: valence bond Theory- its important features, concept of hybridization involving S P and D orbitals, Resonance.
Molecular Orbital Theory- its important features, LCAO’s , types of molecular orbitals (bonding, antibonding) sigma and pi-bonds, molecular orbital electronic configuration of homonuclear diatomic molecules, concept of bond order, bond length and bond energy. Elementary idea of metallic bonding. Hydrogen bonding and its applications.
Unit 5: chemical Thermodynamics:
Fundamentals of thermodynamics, system and surroundings, extensive and intensive properties, state functions, types of processes.
First law of thermodynamics: concept of work, heat internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity, molar heat capacity, Hess’s law of constant heat summation, enthalpies of bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, hydration, ionization and solution.
Second law of thermodynamics: spontaneity of processes, DS of the universe and DG of the system as criteria for spontaneity, DG0 (Standard Gibbs energy change) and equilibrium constant.
Unit 6: Solutions:
Different methods for expressing concentration of solution – molality, molarity, mole fraction, percentage (by volume and mass both) vapour pressure of solution and Raoult’s law- ideal and non ideal solutions, vapour pressure- composition, plots for ideal and non ideal solutions, colligagive properties of dilute solutions, relative lowering of vapour pressure, depression of freezing point, elevation of boiling point and osmotic pressure, determination of molecular mass using colligative properties, abnormal value of molar mass, van’t hoff factor and its significance.
Unit 7: Equilibrium;
Meaning of equilibrium, concept of dynamic equilibrium.
Equilibria involving physical processes: Solid – liquid, liquid-gas and solid-gas equilibria, henry law, general characteristics of equilibrium involving physical processes.
Equilibria involving chemical processes: law of chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constants (Kp and Kc)and their significance, significance of DG and DG0 in chemical equilibria, factors affecting equilibrium concentration, pressure, temperature and effect of catalyst, Le Chatelier’s principle.
Ionic equilibrium: weak and strong electrolytes, ionization of electrolytes, various concepts of acids and bases (Arrhenius, Brnsted- Lowry and Lewis) and their ionization, acid – base equilibria (including multi-stage ionization) and ionization constants, ionization of water, pH scale, common ion effect, hydrolysis of salts and pH of their solutions, solubility of sparingly soluble salts and solubility products, buffer solutions.
Unit 8: Redox Reactions and Electrochemistry:
Electronic concepts of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, rules for assigning oxidation number, balancing of redox reactions. Electrolytic and metallic conduction, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivities and their variation with concentration: Kohlraushch’s law and its applications.
Electrochemical cells- electrolytic and galvanic cells, different types of electrodes, electrode potentials, including standar electrode potential half – cell and cell reactions, emf of a galvanic cell and its measurement , Nearst equation and its applications, Relationship between cell potential and Gibbs energy change, dry cell and lead accumulator, fuel cells.
Unit 9: Chemical Kinetics:
Rate of chemical reaction, factors affecting the rate of reactions, concentration, temperature, pressure and catalyst, elementary and complex reactions, order and molecularity of reactions, rate law, rate constant and its units, differential and integral forms of zero and first order reactions, their characteristics and half lives, effect of temperature on rate of reaction- Arrhenius theory, activation energy and its calculations, collision theory of bimolecular gaseous (no derivation)
Unit 10: Surface Chemistry:
Absorption- Physisorption and chemisorption and their characteristics, factor affecting absorption of gases on solids, Freundlich and Langmuir absorption isotherms, absorption from solutions.
Colloidal State: distinction among true solutions, colloids and suspensions, classification of colloids- lyophilic, lyophobic, multi molecular, macromolecular and associated colloids (micelles), preparation and properties of colloids- Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, dialysis, coagulation and flocculation, emulsions and their characteristics.
Section B: Inorganic Chemistry:
Unit 11: Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties:
Modern periodic law and present form of the periodic table, S P D and F block elements, periodic trends in Properties of elements atomic and ionic radii, ionization states and chemical reactivity.
Unit 12: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Metals:
Modes of occurrence of elements in nature, minerals ores, steps involved in extraction of metals- concentration, reduction (chemical and electrolytic methods) and refining with special reference to the extraction of AI, Cu Zn and Fe, thermodynamic and electrochemical principles involved in the extraction of metals.
Unit 13: Hydrogen:
Position of hydrogen in periodic table, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen, physical and chemical properties of water and heavy water, structure, preparation, reaction and uses of hydrogen peroxide, hydrogen as a fuel.
Unit 14: S-Block Elements (alkali and alkaline earth metals)
Unit 15: P-Block Elements
Unit 16: D – and F – block Elements
Unit 17: Co-ordination Compounds:
Introduction to co-ordination compounds, werner’s theory, ligands, coordination number, denticity, chelation, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds, isomerism, bonding valence bond approach and basic ideas of Crystal field theory, colour and magnetic properties, importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and in biological systems)
Unit 18: Enviromental Chemistry:
Enviromental pollution- atmospheric, water and soil. Atmospheric pollution- tropospheric and stratospheric.
Tropospheric pollutants- gaseous pollutants, oxides of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur, hydrocarbons, their sources, harmful effects and prevention, green house effect and global warming, acid rain.
Particulate pollutants: formation and breakdown of ozone, depletion of ozone layer – its mechanism and effects.
Water pollution – major pollutants such as pathogens, organic wastes an chemical plllutants, their harmful effects and prevention.
Soul pollution – major pollutants such as pesticides (insecticides, herbicides and fungicides) their harmful effects and prevention. Strategies to control environmental pollution.
Section C: Organic Chemistry:
Unit 19: Purification and Characterisation of Organic Compounds:
Purification – crystallization, sublimation, distillation, differential extraction and chromatography- principles and their applications.
Qualitative analysis- detection of nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and halogens.
Quantitative analysis (basic principles only) estimation of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, halogens, sulphur, phosphorus. Calculation of empirical formulae and molecular formulae, numerical problems in organic quantitative analysis.
Unit 20: some basic principles of organic chemistry:
Tetravalency of Carbon; shapes of simple molecules- hybridization (s and p) classification of organic compounds base don functional groups C=C, C h C and those containing halogens, oxygen , nitrogen and sulphur, homologous series, isomerism- structural and stereoisomerism.
Nomenclature (trivial and IUPAC) covalent bond fission – hemolytic and heterolytic: free radicals, carbocations and carbanions, stability of carbocation and free radicals, elecrophiles and nucleophiles.
Electronic displacement in a covalent bond – inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyper conjugation.
Unit 21: Hydrocarbons:
Classification, isomerism, IUPAC nomenclature, general methods of preparation, properties and reactions
Alkanes- conformations: sawhorse and Newman projections (of ethane) mechanism of halogenations foalkanes.
Alknenes: geometrical isomerism, mechanism of eletrophilic addition, addition of hydrogen, halogens, water, hydrogen halides, (markownikoff’s and peroxide effect) ozonolysis and polymerization.
Alkynes – acidic character, addition of hydrogen, halogens, water and hydrogen halides, polymerization.
Aromatic hydrocarbons- nomenclature, benzene – structure and aromaticity mechanism of electrophillic substitution, halogenations, nitration, fiedel – craft’s alkylation and acylation, directive influence of functional group in nono substituted benzene.
Unit 22: organic compounds containing halogens:
General methods of preparation, properties and reactions, nature of C-X bond, mechanisms of substitution reactions, uses of environmental effects of chloroform and iiodoform.
Unit 23: organic compounds containing oxygen:
General methods of preparation, properties, reactions, and uses
Alcohols, phenols and ethers alcohols: identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols, mechanism of dehydration.
Phenols: acidic nature, electrophilic substitution reaction, halogenations, nitration and sulphonation, Reimer- Tiemann reaction.
Aldehyde and ketones: nature of carbonyl group, nucleophilic addition to >C=O group, relative reactivities of Aldehydes and ketones, important reactions such as nucleophilic addition reaction (addition of HCN, NH3 and its derivatives) Grignard reagent, oxidation, reduction (Wolff Kishner and Clemmensen) acidity of hydrogen, aldol condensation, Cannizzaro reaction, Haloform reaction, chemical Tests to distinguish between Aldehydes and ketones.
Carboxylic Acids acids strength and factors affecting it
Unit 24: Organic Compounds containing Nitrogen:
General methods of preparation, properties, reactions, and uses. Amines, nomenclature, classification structure, basic character and identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines and their basic character, diazonuum salts: importance in synthetic organic chemistry.
Unit 25: Polymers:
General introduction and classification of polymers, general method of polymerizationadditon and condensation, copolymerization, natural and synthetic rubber an vulcanization, some important polymers with emphasis on tier monomer and usis – polythene, nylon, polyester and Bakelite.
Unit 26: Biomolecules: general introduction and importance of Biomolecules
Carbohydrates- classification aldoses and ketoses, monosaccharides (glucose and fructose) and sonstituent monosaccharides of oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose and maltose)
Proteins- elementary idea of amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, primary secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure (qualitative idea only) denaturation of proteins, enzymes.
Vitamins – classifications and functions
Nucleic acids- chemical constitution of dna and rna biological functions of nucleic acids.
Unit 27: chemistry in Everyday life:
Chemical in medicines – analgesics, tranquillizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines, their meaning and common examples.
Chemical s in food- preservatives, artificial sweetening agents – common examples
Cleansing agents – soaps and detergents, cleansing action
Unit 28: principles related to practical chemistry:
Detection of extra elements, (NS halogens) in organic compound, detection of the following functional groups hydroxyl (alcoholic and phenolic) carbonyl (aldehyde and ketone) carboxyl and amino groups ain organic compounds.
Chemistry involved in the preparation of the following: Inorganic compounds: Mohr’s salt, potash alum. Organic yellow, iodoform. Chemistry involved in the titrimetric exercises acids bases nad the uses of indicators, oxalic acid vs KMn04 mohr’s salt vs KMn04.
Chemical principles involved in the qualitative salt analysis:
chemical principles involved in the following experiments: enthalpy of solution of CuSO4, enthalpy of neutralization of strong acid and strong base, preparation of lyophilic and lyophobic sols, kinetic study of reaction of iodide ion with hydrogen peroxide at room temperature.