Chemistry Syllabus for AIEEE:
Section: A Physical Chemistry:
Unit 1: Some Basic Concepts in Chemistry:
Matter and its nature, Dalton’s atomic theory, concept of an atom, molecule, element and compound, physical quantities and their measurements in chemistry, precision and accuracy, significant figures, S.I units, dimensional analysis, laws of chemical combination, atomic and molecular masses, mole concept, molar mass, percentage composition, empirical and molecular formulae, chemical equations and stoichiometry.
Unit 2: States of Matter: (Classification of Matter into Solid, liquid and gaseous states)
Measurable properties of gases, gas laws – boyle law, charle’s law, graham law of diffusion, Avogadro law, charle’s law, graham law of diffusion, Daltons law of partial pressure, concept of absolute scale of temperature, ideal gas equation, kinetic theory of gases( only postulates) concept of average root mean and most probable velocities, real gases, deviation from ideal behavior, compressibility factor and van der waals equation.
Properties of liquid, vapour pressure, viscosity and Properties of liquid, vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension and effect of temperature on them (quantitative treatment only)
Classification of solids, molecular ionic covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystallic solids, (elementary idea) bragg law and its application, unit cell and lattices, packing in solids, (fcc, bcc and hcp batteries) voids, calculations involving unit cell and parameters, imperfection in solids, electrical magnetic properties.
Unit 3: Atomic Structure:
Thomson and Rutherford atomic models and their limitations, nature of electromagnetic radiation, photoelectric effect, spectrum of hydrogen atom, Bohr model of hydrogen atom, its postulates, derivation of the relation for energy of the electron and radii of the different orbits, limitations of Bohr model. Dual nature of matter, de brogilie relationship Heisenberg uncertainity principle. Elementary ideas of quantum mechanics, quantum mechanical model or atoms, its important features. Concept of atomic orbitals as one electron wave functions. Variation of and with r for 1s and 2s orbitals, various quatum numbers , angular momemtum and magnetic quatum numbers and their significance, shapes of s, p and d orbitals, electron spin and spin quantum number, rules for filling electron in orbits, aufbau principle pauli exclusion principle and hunds rule, electronic configuration of elements, extra stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals.
Unit 4: Chemical Bonding and molecular Structure:
Kossel- lewis approach to chemical bond formation, concept of ionic and covalent bonds.
Ionic Bonding: Formation of ionic bonds, factors affecting the formation of ionic bonds: calculation of lattice enthalpy.
Covalent bond: concept of electro negativity, fajan rule, dipole moment, valence shell electron pair repulsion theory and shapes of simple molecules
Quantum mechanical approach to covalent bonding: valence bond theory, its important features, concept of hybridization invoving s, p and d orbitals resonance
Molecular Orbital theory: its important features, LCAO, types of molecular orbits (bonding antibonding) sigma and pi bonds, molecular orbital electronic configurations of homonuclear diatomic molecules, concept of bond order, bond length and bond energy.
Elementary idea of metallic bonding, hydrogen bonding and its applications.
Unit 5: Chemical thermodynamics:
Fundamental of thermodynamics, system and surroundings, extensive and intensive properties, state functions types of processes.
First Law of Thermodynamics, Second Law of Thermodynamics,
Unit 6: Solutions:
Different methods for expressing concentration of solution, molatity, molarity, mole fraction, percentage (by volume and mass both) vapour pressure of solutions and Raoults law ideal and non ideal solutions, vapour pressure, composition, plots for ideal and non ideal solutions, relative lowering of vapour pressure, depression of freezing point, elevation of boiling point and osmotic pressure, determination of molecular mass using colligative properties, abnormal valur of mass molar, vant hoffs factor and its significance.
Unit 7: Equilibrium:
Meaning of Equilibrim, concept of dynamic equilibrium.
Equilibria involving physical processes: solid , liquid, gas and solid- gas equilibria, henry law, general charactericts of equilibrium involving physical processes.
Equilinbria involving chemical Processes: law of chemical equilibrium constants (kp and kc) and their significance, significance in chemical equilibria, factors affecting equilibrium concentration, pressure, temperature effect of catalyst, Le chandelier principle.
Ionic Equilibrim: weak and strong electrolytes, ionization of electrolytes, various concepts of acids and bases (Arrhenius, Bronsted – Lowry and lewis) and their ionization acid, base equilibria (including multi-stage ionization) and ionization of constants, ionization of water, ph scale, common ion effect, hydrolysis of salts and ph of their solutions, solubility of sparingly soluble salts and solubility products, and buffer solutions.
Unit 8: Redox reaction and electrochemistry:
Electronic concepts of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, rules for assigning oxidation number, balancing of redox reactions.
Electrolytic and metallic conduction, conductance in electrolytic solutions, molar conductivities and their variation with concentration , kohlrauschs law and its applications.
Electrochemical cells- electrolytic and galvanic cells, different types of electrodyes, electrode potentials, including standar electrode potential, half cell and its cell reactions, emf of a galvanic cell and its measurement, nerst equation and its application, relationship between cell potential and gibbs energy change, dry cell and lead accumulator, fuel cells.
Unit 9: chemical kinetics:
Rate of chemical reaction, factors affecting the rate of reactions, concentration, temperature, pressure and catalyst, elementary and complex reactions, order and molecularity of reactions, rate law, rate constant and its units, differential and integral forms of zero and first order reactions, their characteristics and half lives, effect of temperature on rate of reactions, Arrhenius theory, activation energy and its calculation, collusion theory of bimolecular gaseous reactions.
Unit 10: Surface Chemicstry:
Adsorption- physisorption and chemisorptions and their characteristics, factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids, freundlich and Langmuir adsorption of gases of solids, fredundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms, adsorption from solutions.
Catalysis: homogeneous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity of solids catalysis, enzyme catalysis and its mechanism.
Colloidal state: distinction among true solutions, colloids and suspensions, classifications of colloids, lyphilic, lyophobic, multimolecular, macromolecular and associated colloids (micelles) preparation and properties of colloids, tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, dialysis, coagulation and flocculation, emulsions and their characteristics.
Section B: Inorganic Chemistry:
Unit 11: Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties:
Modern periodic law and present form of periodic table , s, p d and f block elements, periodic trends in properties of elements atomic and ionic radii, ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, valence, oxidation states and chemical reactivity.
Unit 12: General Principles and processes of isolation of metals:
Modes of occurrence of elements in nature, mineral ores, steps involved in the extraction of metals, concentration, reduction (chemical electrolytic methods) and refining with special reference to the extraction of Al Cu Zn and Fe thermodynamic and electrochemical principles involved in the extraction of metals.
Unit 13: Hydrogen:
Position of hydrogen in periodic table, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen , physical and chemical properties of water and heavy water, structure and preparation, reaction and uses of hydrogen peroxide, classification of hydrides, ionic covalent and interstitial, hydrogen as a fuel.
Unit 14: S block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline Earth Materials)
Unit 15: P block Elements
Unit 16: d and f block elements
Unit 17: Co ordination Compounds:
introduction to co ordination compounds, wener’s theory, ligands, co ordination number, denticity chelation, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear co ordination compounds, isomerism, bonding valence bond approach and basic ideas of crystal field theory, color and magnetic properties, importance of co ordination compounds
Unit 18: Environmental Chemistry:
Environmental pollution: atmospheric, water and soil
Atmospheric pollution: tropospheric and stratospheric
Tropospheric pollutants- gaseous pollutants- oxides of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur, hydrocarbons, their sources, harmful effects and prevention, green house effect and global warming, acid rain
Particulate pollutants: smoke, dust ,smog, fumes, mist their sources, harmful effects and prevention.
Stratospheric pollution: formation and breakdown of ozone, depletion of ozone layer, its mechanism and its effects and pollution.
Water pollution: major pollutants such as pathogens, organic wastes, and chemical pollutants, their harmful effects and prevention.
Soil pollution- major pollutants such as pesticides, insectides herbicides and fungicides their harmful effects and prevention
Section C: Organic Chemistry:
Unit 19: Purification and characterisation of organic compounds:
Purification: crystallization, sublimation, distillation, differential extraction, and chromatography principles and their applications.
Qualitative analysis: detection of nitrogen, sulphur, and phosphorous and halogens.
Quantitative analysis: estimation of carbons, shapes of simple molecules, hybridization (s and p) classification or organic compounds based on functional groups, and those containing halogens oxygen nitrogen and sulphur homologous series, isomerism structural and steroisomerism.
Nomenclature (trivial and IUPAC): Covalent bond fission, hemolytic and heterolytic free radicals, carbocations and carbonions ,stability of carbocations and free radicals, electrophiles and nucleophiles.
Electronic displacement in a covalent bond: inductive effect, electronic effect, resonance and hyperconjugation
Common types of organic reactions: substitution, addition, elimination and rearrangement.
Unit 21: Hydrocarbons:
Classification, isomerism, IUPAC nomenclature, general methods of preparation, properties and reactions.
Alkanes- conformations: sawhorse and Newman projections (of ethane) mechanism of halogenations of alkanes.
Alkenes- geometrical isomerism, mechanism of electrophilic addition, addition of hydrogen, halogens water, hydrogen halides (markownikoffs and peroxide effect) ozonolysis and polymerization.
Aromatic hydrocarbons: nomenclature, benzene, structure and aromaticity, mechanism of elctrophillic, substitution, halogenations, nitration, friedel, crafts alkylation and acylation directive influence of functional group in mono substituted benzene.
Unit 22: organic compounds containing halogens:
General methods of preparation, properties, reactions and uses.
(Alcohols, phenols and ethers)
Alcohols: identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols, mechanism of dehydration.
Phenols: acidic nature, eletrophillic substitution, reaction, halogenations, nitration and sulphonation, reamer teimann reaction.
Aldehyde and ketones: nature of carbonyl group, nuclear addition to >C=O group, relative reactivities of Aldehydes and ketones, important reaction such as nucleophilic addition reactions , Grignard reagent, oxidation, reduction, acidity of hydrogen aldol condensation, cannizzaro reaction, haloform reaction, chemical tests to distinguish between Aldehydes and keytones
Carboxylic acids: acidic strength and factors affecting it
Unit 24: organic compounds containing nitrogen:
General methods of preparation, properties, reactions and uses.
Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure basic character, and identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines and their basic character.
Diazonium salts: importance in synthetic organic chemistry
Unit 25: Polymers:
General introduction and classification of polymers, general methods of polymerization and addition and condensation, co polymerization, natural and synthetic rubber and vulcanization, some important polymers with emphasis on their monomers and uses – polythene, nylon polyester and Bakelite.
Unit 26: Bio molecules:
General introduction and importance of Biomolecules
Carbohydrates- classification aldoses and ketoses, monosaccharides (glucose and fructose) and constituent monosaccharides of oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose and maltose)
Proteins: elementary idea amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, primary , secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure, denaturation of proteins, enzymes
Vitamins: classification and functions
Nuclei Acids: chemical constitution of DNA and RNA.
Unit 27: chemistry in everyday life:
Chemicals in medicines- analgesics, tranquillizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, anti fertility, drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamins, their meaning and common examples.
Chemical in food: preservatives, artificial sweeting agents, common examples
Cleansing agents: soaps and detergents, cleaning action
Unit 28: principles related to practical chemistry:
Detection of extra elements (N S halogens) in organic compounds, detection of the following functional groups: hydroxyl (alcoholic and phenolic) carbonyl (aldehyde and ketone) carboxyl and amino in groups in organic compounds.
Chemistry involved in the preparation of the following:
-Inorganic compounds: Mohr’s salt, potash alum.
-Organic compounds: Acetanilide, pnitroactanilide, aniline yellow, iodoform
-Chemistry involved in the titrimetric exercises, acids bases and use of indicators, oxalic acid
-Chemical principles involved in the qualitative salt analysis
-Chemical principles involved in the following experiments
-Enthalpy of solution of CuSO4
-Enthalpy of neutralization of strong acid and strong base
-Preparation of lyophilic and lyophobic sols
-Kinetic study of reaction of iodide ion with hydrogen peroxide at room temprature