BITSAT 2015 Chemistry Syllabus:
(i)States of Matter:
Measurement: Physical quantities and SI units; Dimensional analysis; Precision; Significant figures.
Chemical reactions: Laws of chemical combinations; Dalton’s atomic theory; Mole Concept; Atomic; molecular and molar masses; Percentage composition empirical & molecular formula; Balanced chemical equations & Stoichiometry.
Three states of matter; intermolecular interactions; types of bonding; melting and boiling points
Gaseous state: Gas laws; ideal behavior; ideal gas equation; empirical derivation of gas equation, Avogadro number, Kinetic theory- Maxwell distribution of velocities; Average; root mean square and most probable velocities and relation to temperature; Diffusion; Deviation from ideal behavior-Critical temperature; liquefaction of gases; van der Waals equation
Liquid State: Vapour pressure; surface tension; viscosity
Solid state: Classification; Space lattices & crystal systems; Unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices; calculation of density of unit cell-Cubic & hexagonal systems; Close packaging; Crystal structures: Simple AB and AB2 type ionic crystals; covalent crystals-diamond & graphite; metals. Voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic cell, Imperfections-Point defects; non-stoichiometric crystals; Electrical, magnetic and dielectric properties; Amorphous solids-qualitative description. Band theory of metals; conductors; semiconductors and insulators; and n-and p-type semiconductors.
Introduction: Radioactivity; Subatomic particles; Atomic number; isotopes and isobars; Thompson’s model and its limitation, Rutherford’s picture of atom and its limitations; Hydrogen atom spectrum and Bohr model and its limitations
Quantum Mechanics: Wave-particle duality-de Broglie relation; Uncertainity principle; Hydrogen atom: Quantum numbers and wavefunctions; atomic orbitals and their shapes (s,p and d); Spin quantum number.
Many electron atoms: Pauli exclusion principle; Aufbau principle and the electronic configuration of atoms; Hund’s rule.
Periodicity: Brief history of the development of periodic tables; Periodic law and the modern periodic table; Types of elements: s, p, d and f blocks; Periodic trends; ionization energy; atomic; and ionic radii, inter gas radii, electron affinity, electro negativity and valencey; Nomenclature of elements with atomic number greater than 100
(iii)Chemical Bonding & Molecular Structure:
Valence electrons; Ionic Bond: Lattice Energy and Born-Haber cycle; Covalent character of ionic bonds and polar character of covalent bond; bond parameters
Molecular Structure: Lewis picture & resonance structures; VSEPR model & molecular shapes
Covalent Bond: Valence Bond Theory – Orbital overlap; Directionality of bonds & hybridization (s, p & d orbitals only); Resonance; Molecular orbital theory- Methodology; Orbital energy level diagram; Bond order; Magnetic properties for the homonuclear diatomic species (qualitative idea only)
Metallic Bond: Qualitative description
Intermolecular Forces: Polarity; Dipole moments; Hydrogen Bond
Basics Concepts: Systems and surroundings; State functions; Intensive & Extensive Properties; Zeroth law and Temprature
First law of Thermodynamics: Work; internal energy; heat; enthalpy; heat capacities and specific heats; measurements of U and H; Enthalpies of formation; phase transformation; ionization; electron gain; Thermochemistry; Hess’s Law; Enthalpy of bond dissociation; combustion; atomization; sublimation; solution and dilution.
Second law: Spontaneous and reversible processes; entropy; Gibbs free energy related to spontaneity and non-spontaneity; non-mechanical work; Standard free energies of formation; free energy change and chemical equilibrium
Third law: Introduction
(v)Physical and Chemical Equilibria:
Concentration Units: Mole Fraction; Molarity and Molality
Solutions: Solubility of solids and gases in liquids; Vapour Pressure; Raoult’s law; Relative lowering of vapour pressure; depression in freezing point; elevation in boiling point; osmotic pressure; determination of molecular mass; solid solutions; abnormal molecular mass; van’t Hoff factor. Equilibrium: Dynamic nature of equilibrium; law of mass action.
Physical Equilibrium: Equilibria involving physical changes (solid-liquid, liquid-gas, solid-gas); Surface chemistry, Adsorption, Physical and Chemical adsorption, Langmuir Isotherm; Colloids and emulsion; classification; preparation; uses.
Chemical Equilibria: Equilibrium constants (Kp, Kc) Factors affecting equilibrim; Le-Chatelier’s principle
Ionic Equilibria: Strong and Weak electrolytes; Acids and Bases (Arrhenius, Lewis, Lowry and Bronsted) and their dissociation; degree of ionization; Ionization of Water; ionization of polybasic acids; pH; Buffer Solutions; Henderson equation; Acid base titrations; Hydrolysis; Solubility Product of Sparingly Soluble Salts; Common Ion Effect.
Factors Affecting Equilibria: Concentration; Temperature; Pressure; Catalysts; Significance of G and G in Chemical Equilibria
Redox Reactions: Oxidation-reduction reactions (electron transfer concept); Oxidation number; Balancing of redox reactions; Electrochemical cells and cell reactions; Standard electrode potentials; EMF of Galvanic cells; Nernst equation; Factors affecting the electrode potential; Gibbs energy change and cell potential; Secondary cells; dry cells; Fuels cells; Corrosion and its prevention
Electrolytic Conduction: Electrolytic Conductance; Specific and molar conductivities; variations of conductivity with concentration; Kolhrausch’s law and its application; Electrolysis; Faraday’s laws of electrolysis; Coulometer; Electrode potential and electrolysis; Commercial production of the Chemicals; NaOH, Na, Cl2 & F2
Aspects of Kinetics: Rate and Rate expression of a reaction; Rate constant; Order and molecularity of the reactions; Integrated rate expressions and half life for zero and first order reactions.
Factor Affecting the Rate of the Reactions: Concentration of the reactants; catalyst; size of particles; Temprature dependence of rate constant concept of collision theory (elementary idea; no mathematical treatment); Activation energy; Catalysis, Surface catalysis, enzymes, zeolites; Factors affecting rate of collisions between molecules.
Mechanism of Reactions: Elementary reactions; Complex reactions; Reactions involving two/three steps only.
Adsorption- physiorption and chemisorptions; factors affecting adsorption of gasses on solids; Catalysis: homogeneous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity; enzyme catalysis, colloidal state: distinction between true solutions, colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulations; emulsions- types of emulsions.
(ix)Hydrogen and s-block elements:
Hydrogen: Element: unique position in periodic table; occurrence, isotopes; Dihydrogen: preparation, properties, reactions, and uses; molecular, saline, ionic, covalent, interstitial hydrides; Water: Properties; Structure and aggregation of water molecules; Heavy water; Hydrogen peroxide; preparation, reaction, structure & use, Hydrogen as a fuel.
s-block elements: Abundance and occurrence; Anomalous properties of the first elements in each group; diagonal relationships; trends in the variation of properties (ionization energy, atomic & atomic radii)
Alkali metals: Lithium, sodium and potassium: occurrence, extraction, reactivity and electrode potentials; Biological importance; Reactions with oxygen, hydrogen, halogen water and liquid ammonia; Basic nature of oxides and hydroxides; Halides; Properties and uses of compounds such as NaCl, NaCO3, NaHCO3, NaOH, KCL and KOH.
Alkaline earth metals: Magnesium and calcium: Occurrence, extraction, reactivity and electrode potentials; Reactions with O2, H2O, H2 and halogens; Solubility and thermal stability of oxo salts; Biological importance of Ca and Mg; Preparation, properties and uses of important compounds such as that of CaO. Ca(OH)2, plaster of Paris; MgSO4, MgCl2, CaCO3 and CaSO4: Lime and limestone, cement
(x)p-d- and f-block elements:
General: Abundance, distribution, physical and chemical properties; isolation and uses of elements; trends in chemical reactivity of elements of a group; electronic configuration; oxidation states; anomalous properties of first element of each group
Group 13 elements: Boron; Properties and uses of borax, boric acid; boron hydrides & halides. Reaction of aluminium with acids and alkalis
Group 14 elements: Carbon: carbon catenation, physical & chemical properties, uses, allotropes (graphite, diamond, fullerenes), oxides, halides and sulphides, carbides; Silicon: Silica, silicates, silicone, silicon tetrachloride, Zeolites, and their uses
Group 15 elements: Dinitrogen: Preparation, reactivity and uses of nitrogen; Industrial and biological nitrogen fixation; Compound of nitrogen; Ammonia: Haber’s process; properties and reactions; Oxides of nitrogen and their structures; Properties of Ostwald’s process of nitric acid production; Fertilizers-NPK type; Production of phosphorus; allotropes of phosphorus; Preparation, structure and properties of hydrides, oxides, oxoacids (elementary idea only) and halides of phosphorus; phosphine.
Group 16 elements: Isolation and chemical reactivity of dioxygen; Acidic, basic and amphoteric oxides; Preparation structure and properties of ozone; Allotropes of sulphur: Preparation/production properties and uses of sulphur dioxide and sulphuric acid; Structure and properties of oxides, oxoacids( structures only) hydrides and halides of sulphur.
Groups 17 and groups 18 elements: Structures and properties of hydrides, oxides, oxoacids of halogens (structures only); preparation, properties & uses of chlorine & HCL; Inter halogen compounds; Bleaching Powder; Uses of Group 18 elements, Preparation, structure and reactions of xenon fluorides, oxides and ozoacids.
d-Block elements: General trends in the Chemistry of first row transistion elements; Metallic character; Oxidation state; ionization enthalpy; Ionic radii; Color; Catalytic properties; Magnetic properties; Interstitial compounds; Occurrence and extraction of iron, copper, silver, zinc and mercury; Alloy formation; Steel and some important alloys; preparation and properties of CuSO4, K2Cr2O7, KMnO4; Mercury halides; Silver nitrate and silver halides; Photography.
f-Block elements: Lanthanoids and actinoids; Oxidation states and chemical reactivity of lanthanoids compounds; Lanthanide contraction and its consequences, Comparison of actinoids and lanthanoids.
Coordination Compounds: Coordination number; Ligands; Werner’s coordination theory; IUPAC nomenclature; Application and importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative) analysis; extraction of metals and biological systems e.g. chlorophyll, vitamin B12 and hemoglobin; Bonding: Valence bond approach, Crystal field theory (qualitative); Stability constants; Shapes, color and magnetic properties; Isomerism including stereoisomerisms; Organometallic compounds.
(xi)Principles of Organic Chemistry and Hydrocarbons:
Classification: General introduction; classification based on functional groups, trivial and IUPAC nomenclature. Methods of purification: qualitative and quantitative
Electronic displacement in a covalent bond: Inductive, resonance effects, and hyperconjugation; free radicals halogenations.
Alkanes and cycloalkanes: Structural isomerism; general properties and chemical reactions; free redical helogenation; combustion and pyrolysis.
Alkenes and alkynes: General methods of preparation and reactions; physical properties; electrophilic and free radical additions; acidic character of alkynes and (1, 2 and 1, 4) addition to dienes.
Aromatic hydrocarbons: Sources; properties; isomerism; resonance delocalization; aromaticity; polynuclear hydrocarbons; IUPAC nomenclature; mechanism of electrophilic substitution reaction and mechanism of substitution reaction. Uses and environmental effects; di, tri, tetrachloromethanes, iodoform, Freon and DDT.
Petroleum: Composition and refining, uses of petrochemicals.
Introduction: Chiral molecules; optical activity; polarimetry; R, S and D, L configurations; Fischer projections; enantiomerism; racemates diastereomerism and meso structures.
Conformations: Ethane conformations; Newman and Sawhorse projections.
Geometrical isomerism in alkenes.
(xiii)Organic Compounds with Functional Groups Containing Oxygen and Nitrogen:
General: Nomenclature, electronic structure; important methods of preparation; identification; important reactions; physical and chemical properties; uses of alcohols, phenols, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, nitro compound, amines, diazonium salts; cyanides and isocyanides.
(xiv)Biological, Industrial and Environmental Chemistry:
The Cell: Concept of cell and energy cycle.
Carbohydrates: Classification; Monosaccharides; Structure of pentoses and hexoses; Anomeric carbon; Mutarotation; Simple chemical reactions of glucose; Disaccharides: reducing and non-reducing sugars- sucrose, maltose and lactose; Polysaccharides: elementary idea of structures of starch, cellulose and glycogen.
Proteins: Amino acids; Peptide bond; Polypeptides; Primary structures of proteins; Simple idea of secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins; Denaturation of proteins and enzymes.
Nucleic Acids: Types of nucleic acids; Primary building blocks of nuclei acids (chemical composition of DNA & RNA); Primary structure of DNA and its double helix; Replication; Transcription and protein synthesis; Genetic Code.
Vitamins: Classification, structure, functions in biosystems; Hormones
Polymers: Classification of polymers; General methods of polymerization; Molecular mass of polymers; Biopolymers and biodegradable polymers; methods of polymerization (free radical, cationic and anionic addition polymerizations); Copolymerization: Natural rubber; Vulcanization of rubber; Synthetic rubbers; Condensation polymers.
Pollution: Environmental pollutants; soil, water and air pollution; chemical reactions in atmosphere; Smog; Major atmospheric pollutants; Acid rain; Ozone and its reactions; Depletion of ozone layer and its effects; Industrial air pollution; Green house effect and global warming; Green Chemistry, study for control of environmental pollution;
Chemical in medicine; health care and food; Analgesics, Tranquilizers, antiseptics; disinfectants; anti-microbials; anti-fertility drugs; antihistamines; antibiotics; antacids; preservatives; artificial sweetening agents; antioxidants; soaps and detergents
(xv)Theoretical Principles of Experimental Chemistry:
Volumetric Analysis: Principles; Standard solutions of sodium carbonate and oxalic acid; acid-base titrations; Redox reactions involving KI, H2SO4, NaSO3, NaS2O3 and H2S; Potassium permanganate in acidic; basic and neutral media; Titrations of oxalic acid; ferrous ammonium sulphate
Physical Chemistry Experiments: preparation and crystallization of alum; copper sulphate. Benzoic acid ferrous sulphate, double salt of alum and ferrous sulphate, potassium ferric sulphate; Temperature vs solubility; Study of pH charges by common ion effect in case of weak acids and weak bases; pH measurements of some solutions obtained from fruit juices, solutions of known and varied concentrations of acids, bases and salts using pH paper or universal indicator; Lyophilic and lyophilic sols; Dialysis; Role of emulsifying agents in emulsification; Equilibrium studies involving ferric and thiocyanate ions (ii) and chloride ions; Enthalpy determination for strong acid vs strong base neutralization reaction (ii) hydrogen bonding between acetone and chloroform; Rates of the reaction between (i)sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid (ii)potassium iodate and sodium sulphite (iii)iodide vs hydrogen peroxide, concentration and temperature effects in these reactions.
Purification Methods: Filtration, crystallization, sublimation, distillation, differential extraction, and chromatography. Principles of melting point and boiling point determination; principles of paper chromatographic separation –Rf values.
Qualitative Analysis of Organic Compounds: Basic principles for the quantitative estimation of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, halogen, sulphur and phosphorous; Molecular mass determination by silver salt and chloroplatinate salt methods; Calculations of empirical and molecular formulae.
Principles of Organic Chemistry Experiments: Preparation of iodoform; acetanilide, p-nitro acetanilide, di-benzayl acetone, aniline yellow; beta-naphthol; Preparation of acetylene and study of its acidic character.
Basic Laboratory Technique: Cutting glass tube and glass rod, bending a glass tube, drawing out a glass jet, boring of cork.