Biology Syllabus for the KCET 2015 Examinations

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Biology Syllabus for the KCET 2015 Examinations:

The Karnataka Common Entrance Test, which is also popularly known as the KCET Examinations is conducted to admit all Candidates and Students to the Various Several Engineering, Technology, Architecture Programs.

The above mentioned Programs and Courses are offered by Universities and Colleges all over the State of Karnataka. Some of these colleges are Privately funded while some are not, but all these technical educational institutes offer and admit students and candidates to their courses and programs, only on the basis of the performance and marks obtained in the KCET Examinations.

These examinations comprise of 4 Papers, namely Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics and Biology. The Next KCET 2015 Examinations are Scheduled to be conducted in the Month of May 2015. Here, is the Biology Syllabus for the KCET 2015 Examinations.

UNIT I: DIVERSITY IN LIVING WORLD
What is living? – Concept of Biodiversity Classification of the living organisms
– Need for classification
– Three domains of life
– Five kingdoms of life and basis of five kingdom classification
– Lichens
– Virus and Virioids

Systematics and binomial System of nomenclature
– Taxonomy & Systematics
– Concept os species & taxonomic hierarchy
– Binomial nomenclature
– Salient features of classification of Monera, Protoctista (Protista) and Fungi into major groups
– Salient features of classification of plants into major groups: Algae, Bryophytes,Pteriodophytes, Gymnosperms and features of each category and at least two examples of each
– Angiosperms: classification upto class, characterisation features and examples
– Salient features of animals: Major non-chordates phyla and chordate classes. Three to five salient features and at least two examples
– Tools for study of biodiversity: Museums, Zoos, Herbaria, botanical gardens

UNIT II: STRUCTURAL ORGANISATION IN ANIMALS AND PLANTS
– Tissues in animals and plants
– Morphology including modifications, microscopic anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plants: Root, Stem, leaf, inflorescence, flower, fruit and seed (To be dealt along with the relevant Practicals of the Practical Syllabus)
– Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of an insect (cockroach) (Brief account only)

UNIT III: CELL: STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
– Cell and its three major parts: Cell Membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus
– Cell theory and the cell as the basic unit of life
– Structure of the Prokanyotic and eucaryotic cell
– Plant cell and animal cell (brief)
– Cell Organelles:Cell envelope, cell membrane, cell wall structure and
function: mitochondria, Golgi bodies/dictyosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, lysosomes, vacuoles, plastids, microbodies
– Cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (Ultrastructure and function)
– Nucleus: nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus
– Chemical constituents of living cells
– Biomolecules: Structure and functions of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, lipids and nucleic acids
– Enzymes: types, properties, function and enzyme action
– Cell division: Cell cycle, significance of, and differences between Mitosis and Meiosis

UNIT IV: PLANT PHYSIOLOGY
Movement of water, food, nutrients and gases
– Absorption of water, gases and nutrients
– Cell to Cell transport
– Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport
– Plant-Water Relations
– Imbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis
– Long Distance Transport
– Apoplant, symplast, root pressure, transpiration pull
– Transportation and Guttation
– Opening and closing of stomata
– Role of K+ ions
-Uptake of mineral and their translocation
– Transportation through xylem and phloem
-Plants and mineral nutrition
– Essential minerals, macro- and micronutrients and their role
– Defficiency symptoms
– Mineral toxicity
– Elementary idea of Hydroponics as a Method to study mineral nutrition
– Nitrogen metabolism: Nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation
-Plants Respiration
– Exchange of gases
– Cellular respiration: glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic)
– Energy Relation: Number of ATP molecules generated
– Amphibiotic pathways
– Respiratory quotient of nutrients
-Photosynthesis
– Autotropic nutrition
– Site of photosynthesis
– Photosynthetic pigments (Elementary idea)
– Photosynthetic and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis
– Cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation
– Chemismotic hypothesis
– Phototrespiration
– C and C pathways
– Factors affecting photosynthesis
– Law of Limiting Factors
-Plant Growth and Development
– Phases of plant growth and plant growth rate
– Condition for Growth
– Differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation
– Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell
– Growth regulators: auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA
– Photomorphogenesis including brief account of phytochromes
(Elementary Idea)
– Seed germination
– Seed dormancy
– Vermalisation
– Photoperiodism

UNIT V: HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY
Digestion and Absorption
– Human alimentary canal and Digestive glands
– Role of digesitive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones
– Peristalsis
– Digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats
– Calorific value of proteins, carbohydrates and fats
– Egestion
– Nutritional and digestive disorders: P E M, indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice

Breathing and Respiration
– Respiratory organs in animals (Recall only)
– Respiratory system in humans
– Mechanism of Breathing and its regulation in humans
– Exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration in humans
– Respiratory volumes
– Disorders related to respiration: Asthma, Emphysema, Occupational Respiratory disorders

Body fluids and Circulation
– Composition of blood, Blood groups, Coagulation of blood
– Composition of Lymph and function
– Human circulatory system
– Structure of human heart and blood vessels
– Cardiac cycle, Cardiac output, ECG
– Double circulation
– Regulation of cardiac activity
– Disorders of circulatory system: Hypertension, Coronary artery disease, Angina pectoris, heart failure

Excretory products and their elimination
– Modes of excretion: Ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism
– Human excretory system-structure and function
– Urine formation, Osmoregulaion
– Regulation of kidney function, Renin-angiotensin, Antinatriuretic factor, ADH and Diabeters insipidus
– Role of other organs in excretion
– Disorders: Uraemia, Renal failure, Renal calculi, Nephritis
– Dialysis and artificial kidney

Locomotion and Movement
– Types of movement: ciliary, flagellar, muscular
– Skeletal muscle, contractile proteins and muscle contraction
– Skeletal system and its functions. (to be dealt with the relvent practical of practical syllabus)
– Joints
– Disorders of muscular and skeletal system: Myasthenia gravis, Tetany, Muscular dystrophy, Arthritis, Osteoporosis Gout

Neural control and coordination
– Neural and nerves
– Nervous system in humans
– Central Nervous system, Peripheral Nervous system and Visceral Nervous system
– Generation and conduction of nerve impulse
– Reflex action
– Sensory Perception
– Elementary structure and function of eye and ear and general idea of other sense organs

Chemical coordination and regulation
– Endocrine glands and hormones
– Human endocrine system: Hypothalamus, Pituitary, Pineal, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal, Pancreas, Gonads
– Mechanism of hormone action (Elementary Idea)
– Role of hormones as messengers and regulators
– Hypo- and hyperactivity and related disorders, (Common disorders eg. Dwarfism, Acromegaly, Cretinism, goitre, exopthalmic goitre, diabetes, Addison’s disease)

IMP: Diseases related to all the human physiology systems to be taught in brief.

From Class XII Syllabus
UNIT 1 REPRODUCTION

Reproduction in Organisms
Reproduction a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species. Modes of reproduction- Asexual and sexual.

Asexual reproduction – Uniparental
– Modes: Binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule, fragmentation, regeneration.
– Vegetative Propagation in plants.
– Micropropagation.

Sexual reproduction in flowering plants – Flower structure.
– Development of male and female gametophytes.
– Pollination-type-agencies and examples.
– Out breeding devices.
– Pollen-Pistil interaction.
– Double fertilization
– Post fertilization events
– Development of endosperm & embryo
– Development of seed and formation of fruit.
– Seed development
– Fruit formation.
– Special modes: apomixes, parthenocarpy, Polyembryony.
– Significance of seed and fruit formation.

Human Reproduction – Male and female reproductive systems.
– Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary
– Gametogenesis: spermatogenesis & oogenesis.
– Menstrual cycle
– Fertilization, embryo development upto blastocyst formation implantation.
– Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea).
– Parturition (Elementary idea).
– Lactation (Elementary idea.

Reproductive health – Need for reproductive health and prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD)
– Birth Control: Need and Methods.
– Contraception & Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP).
– Amniocentesis.
– Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies: IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (Elementary idea for general awareness).

Unit II GENETICS AND EVOLUTION

Heredity and variation – Mendelian Inheritance
– Deviations from Mendelism, incomplete dominance Co-dominance, Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood group, pleiotropy.
– Elementary idea of Polygenic Inheritance
– Chromosome theory of inheritance
– Chromosomes and genes.

Sex determination – In humans, birds, honey bee.
– Linkage and crossing over.
– Sex linked inheritance-Haemophilla, Colour blindness.

Mendellin disorders in humans – Chromosomal disorders in humans.
– Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and klinefelter’s syndromes.

Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material. – Structure of DNA and RNA
– DNA packaging
– DNA replication
– Central dogma
– Transcription, genetic code, translation.
– Gene expression and regulation.
– Genome and human genome project.
– DNA finger printing.

EVOLUTION

Origin of life

Biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution (Palaeontological from comparative anatomy and embryology and molecular evidence)
– Darwin’s contribution /Modern Synthetic theory of Evolution
– Hardy – Weinberg’s principle.

Mechanism of evolution: Variation (Mutation & Recombination) and Natural Selection with examples drift types of natural slection – Gene flow and genetic
– Adaptive Radiation

Human evolution
Unit III BIOLOGY AND HUMAN WELFARE

Health and Disease – Basic concepts of immunology: vaccines
– Pathogens, parasites causing human diseases ( Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis, Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm).
– Cancer, HIV and AIDS.
– Adolescence drug and alcohol abuse.

Insects and human welfare – Silk, Honey, Lac

Improvement in food production – Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein.
– Biofortification, Animal husbandry.

Microbes in human welfare – In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and as biocontrol agents and bioferilizers.

UNIT IV BIOTECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS

Principles and process of Biotechnology – Genetic engineering (Recombination DNA technology).

Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture – Human insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy.
– Genetically modified organisms: B+ crops.
– Bio safety issues.
– Bio piracy and patents.

Unit V ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT

Meaning of ecology, environment, habitat and niche – Organisms and environment.

Population and ecological adaptations – Population Interactions: mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism.
– Population attributes: growth, birth rate and death rate,
– Age distribution.

Ecosystems

Patterns, components, energy flow, nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous), decomposition and productivity – Pyramids of number, biomass, energy.
– Ecological succession
– Ecological Services: Carbon fixation, Pollination, Oxygen release

Biodiversity and its conservation – Threats to and need for biodiversity conservation.
– Hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book.
– Biodiversity conservation- biosphere reserves, national parks and sanctuaries.

Environmental Issues – Air Pollution and its control
– Water pollution and its control
– Agrochemicals and their effects
– Solid waste management
– Radioactive waste management
– Greenhouse effect and global warming
– Ozone depletion, deforestation.
– Any three case studies as success stories addressing environmental issues.

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